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The Third Planet - Chapter 15 The Nature of the Solar...

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 Chapter 15  The Nature of the Solar  System
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    Early History of Astronomy  Ancient Greeks       Used philosophical arguments to  explain natural phenomena Also used some observational data Most ancient Greeks held a  geocentric   (Earth-centered) view of the universe "Earth-centered" view  Earth was a motionless   sphere at the center  of the universe  
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    Early History of Astronomy  Ancient Greeks       Most ancient Greeks held a  geocentric   (Earth-centered) view of the universe "Earth-centered" view  Stars were on the  celestial sphere   Transparent, hollow sphere Celestial sphere turns daily around  Earth  
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    Early History of Astronomy  Ancient Greeks       Most ancient Greeks held a  geocentric   (Earth-centered) view of the universe Seven heavenly bodies  (planetai)    Changed position in sky  The seven wanderers included the  Sun Moon Mercury through Saturn (excluding  Earth)
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    Early History of Astronomy  Ancient Greeks Ptolemaic system  A.D.  141 Geocentric model To explain  retrograde motion,  Ptolemy used  two motions for the planets Large orbital circles, called  deferents,   and Small circles, called  epicycles    
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    The Universe According  to Ptolemy Figure 15.3 A
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    Retrograde Motion as  Explained by Ptolemy Figure 15.3 B
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    Birth of Modern Astronomy  1500s and 1600s Five noted scientists   Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) Concluded Earth was a planet Constructed a model of the solar system  that put the Sun at the center, but he used  circular orbits for the planets Ushered out old astronomy  
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    Birth of Modern Astronomy Five noted scientists   Tycho Brahe (1546–1601)  Precise observer Tried to find  stellar parallax The apparent  shift in a star's position due to the  revolution of Earth Did not believe in the Copernican system  because he was unable to observe stellar  parallax 
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    Birth of Modern Astronomy Five noted scientists   Johannes Kepler (1571–1630)  Ushered in new astronomy Planets revolve around the Sun Three laws of planetary motion  Orbits of the planets are elliptical Planets revolve around the Sun at  varying speed 
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    Birth of Modern Astronomy Five noted scientists   Johannes Kepler (1571–1630)  Three laws of planetary motion  There is a proportional relation between  a planet's orbital period and its distance  to the Sun (measured in  astronomical  units   (AU) —One AU averages about 150  million kilometers, or 93 million miles) 
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    Birth of Modern Astronomy Five noted scientists  
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