Ch04_Outline - Chapter 4 Glacial and Arid Landscapes...

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Chapter 4 Glacial and Arid Landscapes
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Glaciers Glaciers are parts of two basic cycles Hydrologic cycle Rock cycle Glacier A thick mass of ice that originates on land from the accumulation, compaction, and recrystallization of snow
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Glaciers Types of glaciers Valley (alpine) glaciers Exist in mountainous areas Flow down a valley from an accumulation center at its head Ice sheets Exist on a larger scale than valley glaciers Two major ice sheets on Earth are over Greenland and Antarctica
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Glaciers Types of glaciers Ice sheets Often called continental ice sheets Ice Fows out in all directions from one or more snow accumulation centers Other types of glaciers Ice caps Outlet glaciers Piedmont glaciers
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How Glaciers Move Movement is referred to as Fow Two basic types Plastic Fow Occurs within the ice Basal slip Entire ice mass slipping along the ground Most glaciers are thought to move by this process
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How Glaciers Move Movement is referred to as Fow Zone of fracture Occurs in the uppermost 50 meters Tension causes crevasses to form in brittle ice Rates of glacial movement Average velocities vary considerably from one glacier to another
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How Glaciers Move Rates of glacial movement Rates of up to several meters per day Budget of a glacier Zone of accumulation —The area where a glacier forms Elevation of the snowline varies greatly
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How Glaciers Move Budget of a glacier Zone of wastage —The area where there is a net loss to the glacier due to Melting Calving The breaking oF of large pieces of ice (icebergs where the glacier has reached the sea)
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Movement of Glacial Ice Budget of a glacier Balance between accumulation at the upper end of the glacier and loss at the lower end is referred to as the glacial budget If accumulation exceeds loss (called ablation ), the glacial front advances If ablation increases and/or accumulation decreases, the ice front will retreat
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The Glacial Budget Figure 4.5
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Ch04_Outline - Chapter 4 Glacial and Arid Landscapes...

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