Ch03_Outline - Chapter 3 Landscapes Fashioned by Water...

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 Chapter 3  Landscapes Fashioned  by Water
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        Earth’s External Processes Weathering, mass wasting, and  erosion are all called external  processes because they occur at or  near Earth’s surface Internal processes, such as  mountain building and volcanic  activity, derive their energy from  Earth’s interior
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    Mass Wasting: The  Work of Gravity Mass wasting   is the downslope  movement of rock and soil due to  gravity Controls and triggers of mass  wasting Water Reduces the internal resistance  of materials and adds weight to a slope Oversteepening of slopes
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    Mass Wasting: The  Work of Gravity Controls and triggers of mass  wasting Removal of vegetation Root systems bind soil and regolith  together Earthquakes Earthquakes and aftershocks can dislodge  large volumes of rock and unconsolidated  material
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        Water Cycle The  water   cycle  is a summary of the  circulation of Earth’s water supply Processes in the water cycle Precipitation Evaporation Infiltration Runoff Transpiration
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    The Water Cycle Figure 3.5
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      Distribution of Earth’s Water Figure 3.4
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    Running Water Streamflow The ability of a stream to erode and  transport materials is determined by  velocity Factors that determine velocity Gradient,  or slope Channel characteristics including shape,  size, and roughness
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    Running Water Streamflow Factors that determine velocity Discharge —The volume of water moving  past a given point in a certain amount of  time Changes along a stream Cross-sectional view of a stream is  called the profile Viewed from the  head   (headwaters or  source) to the  mouth  of a stream
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    Running Water Changes from upstream to  downstream Profile Profile is a smooth curve Gradient decreases downstream Factors that increase downstream Velocity Discharge Channel size
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       Longitudinal Profile  of a Stream Figure 3.9
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  Base Level Base level and stream erosion Base level  is the lowest point to 
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Ch03_Outline - Chapter 3 Landscapes Fashioned by Water...

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