Ch02_Outline - Chapter 2 Rocks Materials of the Solid Earth...

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Chapter 2 Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth
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Rock Cycle Shows the interrelationships among the three rock types Earth as a system: The rock cycle Magma Crystallization Igneous rock Weathering, transportation, and deposition
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Rock Cycle Earth as a system: The rock cycle Sediment Lithification Sedimentary rock Metamorphism Metamorphic rock Melting Magma
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Rock Cycle Earth as a system: The rock cycle Full cycle does not always take place due to "shortcuts" or interruptions e.g., sedimentary rock melts e.g., igneous rock is metamorphosed e.g., sedimentary rock is weathered e.g., metamorphic rock weathers
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Figure 2.2 The Rock Cycle
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Igneous Rocks Form as magma cools and crystallizes Rocks formed inside Earth are called plutonic or intrusive rocks Rocks formed on the surface Formed from lava (a material similar to magma, but without gas) Called volcanic or extrusive rocks
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Igneous Rocks Crystallization of magma Ions are arranged into orderly patterns Crystal size is determined by the rate of cooling Slow rate forms large crystals Fast rate forms microscopic crystals Very fast rate forms glass
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Igneous Rocks Classification is based on the rock's texture and mineral constituents Texture Size and arrangement of crystals Types Fine-grained —fast rate of cooling Coarse-grained —slow rate of cooling Porphyritic (two crystal sizes)—two rates of cooling Glassy —very fast rate of cooling
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Fine-Grained Igneous Texture Figure 2.4 A
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Coarse-Grained Igneous Texture Figure 2.4 B
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Porphyritic Igneous Texture Figure 2.4 D
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Obsidian Exhibits a Glassy Texture Figure 2.6
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Igneous Compositions Composed mainly of silicate minerals Two major groups Dark silicates = rich in iron and/or magnesium Light silicates = greater amounts of potassium, sodium, and calcium
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Igneous Compositions Granitic rocks Composed almost entirely of light- colored silicates quartz and feldspar
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