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# 5_Matrices - Matrices Special matrices If a matrix has only...

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Matrices 9/8/11

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Special matrices If a matrix has only one column, then it is a column vector. If a matrix has only one row, then it is a row vector. A 1x1 matrix is a scalar. A null matrix has 0 for all of its entries. If the number of rows of a matrix is the same as the number of its columns, then it is a square matrix. The main diagonal of a matrix consists of the elements whose row and column indices are the same. Therefore, the main diagonal starts with the top left corner element, and goes through the elements in the southeast direction. Main diagonal is defined for square and nonsquare matrices. However, it is more interesting for square matrices. If A = (a ij ) nxn , then elements a 11 , a 22 , . .., a nn form the main diagonal of A. is a 4x1 matrix or a column vector. is a 1x1 matrix or a scalar. is a null matrix.
An identity matrix is a square matrix that has 1s on the main diagonal and 0s everywhere else. An identity matrix of order nxn is denoted by I n . A

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5_Matrices - Matrices Special matrices If a matrix has only...

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