Sept 12 and 14 metabolism

Sept 12 and 14 metabolism - Bioenergetics Refers to flow of...

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Unformatted text preview: Bioenergetics Refers to flow of energy in living systems. It is concerned with the energy involved in making and breaking of chemical bonds in the molecules found in biological organism . 1st law of thermodynamics states that energy can be transformed but not created or destroyed. 2nd law states that energy transformations change entropy (High entropy= increased disorganization of a system). Only free energy (energy in organized state) can be used to do work Systems tend to go from states of higher free energy to states of lower free energy Bioenergetics continued 2nd law dictates that all living organisms require continued input of energy Plants obtain this from sunlight Use it to make high free energy glucose from CO2 and H2O that have less free energy (more entropy) Fig. 4.14 Gives up energy Requires energy input Energy transformations involves a series of Reduction/oxidation reactions. Reduction defined as occurring when a molecule gains electrons Low energy High energy Gain electrons Oxidation defined as occurring when a molecule loses electrons High energy Low energy Lose electrons Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Flavin adenine dinucleotide NAD + receives two electrons and one proton. FAD receives two electrons and two protons. High energy Low energy Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Flavin adenine dinucleotide LOW ENERGY HIGH ENERGY Glucose NADH FADH2 ATP- Most important energy molecule Metabolism 1. Digestion in GI tract of Proteins, Fats, Complex Carbohydrates to amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars (glucose). 3. Utilization of amino acids, fatty acids and glucose for energy. 3. Hormonal regulation of glucose availability and uptake-insulin/glucagon/glucocorticoids Metabolism Reactions in the body that involve energy transformation. Two processes: Catabolism: break down of larger organic compounds resulting in release of energy. Includes breakdown of glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and large energy storage molecules. Anabolism: formation of large energy storage molecules such as glycogen, fats and proteins. Energy released from chemical bonds used to form of ATP and heat. This requires input of energy to form higher energy bonds Metabolism Reactions in the body that involve energy transformation. Two processes: Catabolism: break down of larger organic compounds resulting in release of energy. Includes breakdown of glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and large energy storage molecules. Anabolism: formation of large energy storage molecules such as glycogen, fats and proteins. Energy released from chemical bonds used to form of ATP and heat. This requires input of energy to form higher energy bonds High food intake Low food intake Glycolysis: Metabolic pathway in which glucose is broken down to two molecules of pyruvic acid....
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2012 for the course HEALTH 350 taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '12 term at MO St. Louis.

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Sept 12 and 14 metabolism - Bioenergetics Refers to flow of...

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