Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Definition and subareas of anatomy and physiology Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to each other and physiology is the study of the function of body parts Topics of anatomy 1. Gross (microscopic) anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye. a. Regional anatomy is the study of all body structures in a given body region. b. Systemic anatomy is the study of all structures in a body system. c. Surface anatomy is the study of internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin. 2. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. a. Cytology is the study of individual cells. b. Histology is the study of tissues. 3. Developmental anatomy is the study of the change in body structures over the course of a lifetime; embryology focuses on the development that occurs before birth. 4. Specialized Branches of Anatomy a. Pathological anatomy is the study of structural changes associated with disease. b. Radiographic anatomy is the study of internal structures using specialized visualization techniques. c. Molecular biology is the study of biological molecules. 5. Essential tool for studying anatomy are the mastery of medical terminology and the development of keen observational skills. Topics of physiology 1. Physiology has several topics, most of which consider the function of specific organ systems. 2. Physiology often focuses on cellular and molecular events. Levels of Structural Organization o The chemical level is the simplest level of organization 1. Atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules 2. Molecules combine in specific ways to form organelles, which are the basic unit of living cells. o The cellular level is the smallest unit of life, and varies widely size and shape according to the cell’s function. o The tissue level is groups of cells having a common function. o The organ level is made up of discrete structures that are composed of at least two groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function in the body. o The organ system level is a group of organs that work closely together to accomplish a specific purpose. o The organismal level is the total of al structures working together to promise life. The organ systems – name, basic functions o Integumentary system forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues (skin) from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands. o Skeletal system protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.
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Exam 1 Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1...

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