Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 2 Chapter 6 Skeletal...

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Lecture Exam 2 Chapter 6 Skeletal Cartilage : o Basic Structure 1. Contain no blood vessels or nerves 2. Dense connective tissue girdle of periochondrium contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage o Types (hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilages, fibrocartilage) 1. Hyaline cartilage Provide support, flexibility, and resilience Most abundant type 2. Elastic cartilage- similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers 3. Fibrocartilage Collagen fibers- have great tensile strength o Growth (appositional, interstitial) 1. Appositional- cells secrete matrix against the external face of existing face of existing cartilage. 2. Interstitial- chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within 3. Calcification of cartilage occurs during normal bone growth and old age Skeleton : o Parts 1. Axial- forms the long axis of the body and include the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. 2. Appendicular- consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (shoulder bones and hip bones) that attach to the axial skeleton. Bones : o Classification by shape 1. Long- longer than they are wide Has a shaft plus two ends All limb bones except the patella and the wrist and the ankle bones are long bones 2. Short- cube shaped bones (in wrist and ankle) Sesamoid bones- form in a tendon (patella) 3. Flat- thin, flat, slightly curved (sternum, scapulae, ribs, and most skull bones) 4. Irregular- complicated shapes (vertebrae and hip bone) Bones : o Functions 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement 4. Storage (minerals & lipids) 5. Blood cell formation 6. Triglyceride (fat) storage Long Bone : o Names of parts 1. Diaphysis (shaft)- forms the long axis of the bone Compact bone collar surrounds medullary (marrow) cavity Medullary cavity in adults contains fat (yellow marrow) 2. Epiphysis- bone ends
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Expanded ends Spongy bone interior and compact bone exterior Epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate) Articular (hyaline) cartilage on joint surface 3. Location of Hematopoietic Tissue (Red Marrow) Red marrow cavities of adults o Trabecular cavities of the heads of the femur and humerus o Trabecular cavities of the diploe Red marrow of newborn infants o Medullary cavities and all spaces in spongy bone 4. Epiphyseal growth plate- a disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone. 5. Articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage covering bone ends at moveable joints 6. Periosteum- a glistening white, double layered membrane covering the external surface of the entire bone Layers o Outer fibrous layer- dense irregular connective tissue o Inner osteogenic layer- abutting the bone surface Osteoblasts- bone forming cells Osteoclasts- bone destroying cells Osteogenic cells- stem cells Nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, an dlymphatic vessels enter the bone via Nutrient foramina Secured to underlying bone by Sharpey’s fibers (tufts of collagen fibers that
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Exam 2 Study Guide - Lecture Exam 2 Chapter 6 Skeletal...

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