Chapter 9 Thinking and Language

Chapter 9 Thinking and Language - Thinking and Language...

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Unformatted text preview: Thinking and Language Chapter Nine Language shapes the way we think, and determines what we can think about. Cognition Mental activities associated with Thinking, knowing, remembering, communicating How we Form concepts Solve problems Make decisions Concepts Mental groupings Similar objects, events, ideas, or people Prototype Best example of a category Problem-solving Algorithm Step-by-step rule that guarantees a solution e.g., trying every possible combination in order Problem-solving Heuristic Mental shortcut General rule that is usually correct Allows for faster, more efficient problem solving Speedier (but more error-prone) than algorithms Heuristics Representativeness heuristic Judge likelihood by resemblance to a prototype Usually an efficient and fairly accurate heuristic However, error occurs when people fail to process the statistical likelihood of the match Base rate neglect Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy at Yale. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in anti- war demonstrations. Librarians Librarians who are feminists Dr. Jones teaches an introductory psychology course at this school. About 70% of the class are psychology majors and the rest are math and science majors . One student in the class always wears horn-rimmed glasses, carries a calculator, and takes notes with a mechanical pencil. What do you think this students major is? a) Psychology b) Engineering c) Botany Availability heuristic Judge likelihood by ease with which relevant instances come to mind If its easier to remember/imagine, its more likely to happen e.g., greater fear of plane crashes than car wrecks Availability heuristic Twice as many words with K as the 3rd letter compared to the 1st letter But we think there are more with K as the 1st letter because it is easier to think of those They are more available Availability heuristic...
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Chapter 9 Thinking and Language - Thinking and Language...

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