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Unformatted text preview: History 248 – Fall 2008 – Essay Assignment 2 Question 1: Explain how total war redefined internal and external threats for multiethnic empires. In particular, examine how the war affected the interests and goals of national minority leaders. Nationalism is one of the most powerful and influential ideas since the 18 th century, its consequences slowly bred innumerable historical events following the French Revolution in 1789. Comparing the differences and similarities of origins, religions, cultures, languages, ancestries or races, people started to define those who they considered to be in a group with as “us”, “the people” along with the idea of ethnocentrism. The French Revolution marked the very start of distinguishing ethnicities and further nationalities, which played a big and essential part of the origins and the First World War itself, with the help of colonization and imperialism, all these would lead to all the ethnic problems and crises around the globe. With the two designated primary sources, the two major ethnic “prison s ” and the king of colonization – Austria-Hungary , Russia and Great Britain will be discussed in further details in this essay. In the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen on August 27, 1789, the brand new claim at the time of “All sovereignty resides essentially in the nation” was made. 1 The idea of fraternity was first promoted by Napoleon Bonaparte, who combined 1 Winson Chu, “Congress of Vienna in 1815 and Search of Stability” (History 248 lecture, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, September 9, 2008). Italians in one kingdom, consolidated the German states and restored Poland during his reign. The meaning of a new brotherhood was introduced and it meant combining new communities with a liberal government – to form a new nation. At that time all of the controlling powers were multi-racial empires and their old rulers were terrified by these ideas, because they encouraged the minorities or non-dominant races to seek freedom and sovereignty and break away. There was when the empires began to worry about internal threats. The powers tried their very best, though failed, to uphold their existing autocracy and monarchy, and to contain those new and dangerous revolutionary ideas. They were the reason for the call of Congress of Vienna in 1815 and the formation of the Concert of Europe. Unfortunately, the Concert of Europe had failed big time and some very crucial mistakes which led to the underlying causes of the First World War were made. To name the deadliest: the mismatch of political borders and ethnic borders and the neglect of the power of nationalism. Shortly after the decision, ethnic groups and nations started to spring in 1848, 2 but obviously the situation was overlooked. On the other hand, externally , the powers (which were all multiethnic) were all busy at forming alliances and maintaining the current bondage with their “friends”, for example the Holy Alliance of Austria, Prussia and Russia. They with their “friends”, for example the Holy Alliance of Austria, Prussia and Russia....
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2012 for the course LING 300 taught by Professor Anthropology during the Spring '12 term at Wisconsin Milwaukee.
- Spring '12