Fla active prep week 3

Fla active prep week 3 - Natalie Yu Tsz Sum (1155000186)...

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Natalie Yu Tsz Sum (1155000186) LING3201 Active Preparation on Tutorial Questions #3 October 4, 2011. *[Textbook] Lust, Barbara. 2006. Ch. 3 “What is the problem of language acquisition” (pp.28- 48) and Ch. 4.2.1-4.2.2 “A rationalist approach; Challenges to the UG paradigm” (pp.52-63). 1. What is the role of “positive evidence” and “negative evidence” in language acquisition? How is it possible for children to acquire a language by “indirect negative evidence”? What are meant by “Primary Linguistic Data” (PLD) and the “Projection Problem”? “Positive evidence” acts as possible examples that demonstrate possible language leading children to a potential chain of inference. Yet it is not the biggest chunk of language acquisition. In other words, “positive evidence” helps children to hypothesize possible grammar in the language they are exposed to, but it is only effective if children process it correctly; and this evidence is finite, it will never fully determine the infinite expressions which are possible in a language. Without “negative evidence”, certain formal languages have been shown to be unlearnable, but usually, children are not offered direct “negative evidence” in their daily lives; even when it is offered, they frequently rebuff it, and whether they consult these adult behaviors in building their grammar remains doubtful. The most common form of “indirect negative evidence” is a parent simply “repairing” a child’s error by not using the child form. Children must be able to make use of such indirect negative information. What does not occur must first be perceived, and if it is perceived it does not necessarily constitute evidence that an expression cannot occur. Non-occurrence is computationally intractable without a prior hypothesis or expectation that certain occurrences are possible in a particular situation. Computing indirect negative evidence depends on pre-determined hypotheses regarding “possible” language. Primary linguistic data (PLD) is the actual original finite language data to which children are exposed, and from which they must map to knowledge of a specific language; a combination of sound and extra-linguistic experience. The “Projection Problem” is the problem of mapping (=”projecting”) from the finite initial specific experiences of PLD to knowledge of a specific language. 2. What is meant by ‘opacity of the speech stream’? What are some of the factors that make it difficult for the learner to identify the units of the target language s/he is exposed to? Speech is not perceived by analyzing individual segments sequentially, children make a fundamental conversion from a continuous speech stream to a discontinuous (digital) representation. Opacity of the speech stream is the obscurity and non-transparency of the continuous speech sounds. Factors that make it difficult for the learner to identify the units of the language he/she is exposed to are the rate of
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This note was uploaded on 03/21/2012 for the course LING 300 taught by Professor Anthropology during the Spring '12 term at Wisconsin Milwaukee.

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Fla active prep week 3 - Natalie Yu Tsz Sum (1155000186)...

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