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MSE461_09_30_11_Youn_Paper_CNT Electrode PCM

MSE461_09_30_11_Youn_Paper_CNT Electrode PCM - Low-Power...

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DOI: 10.1126/science.1201938 , 568 (2011); 332 Science , et al. Feng Xiong Nanotube Electrodes Low-Power Switching of Phase-Change Materials with Carbon This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. clicking here. colleagues, clients, or customers by , you can order high-quality copies for your If you wish to distribute this article to others here. following the guidelines can be obtained by Permission to republish or repurpose articles or portions of articles ): September 9, 2011 www.sciencemag.org (this infomation is current as of The following resources related to this article are available online at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6029/568.full.html version of this article at: including high-resolution figures, can be found in the online Updated information and services, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2011/03/07/science.1201938.DC1.html can be found at: Supporting Online Material http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6029/568.full.html#related found at: can be related to this article A list of selected additional articles on the Science Web sites http://www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6029/568.full.html#related-urls 1 articles hosted by HighWire Press; see: cited by This article has been http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/collection/app_physics Physics, Applied subject collections: This article appears in the following registered trademark of AAAS. is a Science 2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved. The title Copyright American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20005. (print ISSN 0036-8075; online ISSN 1095-9203) is published weekly, except the last week in December, by the Science on September 9, 2011 www.sciencemag.org Downloaded from
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Low-Power Switching of Phase-Change Materials with Carbon Nanotube Electrodes Feng Xiong, 1,2 Albert D. Liao, 1,2 David Estrada, 1,2 Eric Pop 1,2,3 * Phase-change materials (PCMs) are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfigurable electronics, but high programming currents have presented a challenge to realize low-power operation. We controlled PCM bits with single-wall and small-diameter multi-wall carbon nanotubes. This configuration achieves programming currents of 0.5 microampere (set) and 5 microamperes (reset), two orders of magnitude lower than present state-of-the-art devices. Pulsed measurements enable memory switching with very low energy consumption. Analysis of over 100 devices finds that the programming voltage and energy are highly scalable and could be below 1 volt and single femtojoules per bit, respectively. P hase-change materials (PCMs) such as chalcogenides like Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST), have amorphous (a) and crystalline (c) phases with contrasting electrical and optical properties. PCMs are the active material in rewritable digital video discs (DVDs), where phase transforma- tions are induced and read by a pulsed laser ( 1 , 2 ).
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