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Lecture 30 - Lecture 30 pls-30.1 Temperature Internal...

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Lecture 30 pls-30.1 Temperature, Internal Energy, and Heat Media: none Clicker questions 1 and 2. 1. Internal Energy & Temperature Typical graph: At high enough T : T N U . — ideal monatomic gas (IMG): T k N U B 2 3 = ; All in atom’s CM KE Æ T k v m N U B 2 3 2 1 2 = = — ideal diatomic gas (IDG): T k N U B 2 7 = ; # of atoms # of molecules B k Boltzmann’s constant = 1.38 × 10 23 J/K T (K) N U At large T T N U 0 0 At zero K 0 KE
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Lecture 30 pls-30.2 T k B 2 3 is molecule’s CM KE; T k B 2 2 is internal KE associated with rotation about CM; T k B 2 1 is internal KE associated with vibration of molecule and T k B 2 1 is internal PE associated with vibration. —solid: T k N U B 3 = T k B 2 3 is atom CM KE, T k B 2 3 is PE (associated with vibrations) 2. Heat & Temperature —If heat Q flows into an object, U increases by an amount Q (if the volume remains constant), and thus T also increases. Specific heat capacity : T Q m c 1 Example : ideal monatomic gas Q U U + = 1 2 # of atoms mass of object 1 1 , T U 2 2 , T U Q (from another object) with no change in volume
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