CH44 - Osmoregulation & Excretion Chapter 44 Regulating...

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Osmoregulation & Excretion Chapter 44 Regulating Chemicals • All animals regulate the chemical composition of their bodies by balancing uptake and loss of water and fluids Osmoregulation Osmoregulation is the management of the body’s water content – By controlling movements of solutes between interstitial fluids and the external environment – Water movement follows solute movement by osmosis – The main goal is to regulate the composition of the body’s cells • But is primarily accomplished by regulating the composition of the blood and, subsequently, the interstitial fluids that bathe the cells • Specialized organs maintain fluid composition • Example: vertebrate kidneys Transport Epithelia • Excretory Organs have 2 main functions: – Water balance – Waste disposal (nitrogenous waste) • Both depend on transport epithelia – Moves particular solutes in controlled amounts in specific directions – Some transport epithelia directly face the external environment while others line channels that lead to the outside of the body surface – Most are arranged in complex tubular networks • Provides a large surface area Waste Removal • Nitrogenous waste accumulates from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids If not removed, these wastes become toxic Nitrogenous wastes are the most important in terms of osmoregulation
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Nitrogenous Waste • Enzymes breakdown proteins and remove nitrogen in the form of ammonia Ammonia is a very toxic molecule • Animals that can quickly get rid of ammonia usually do so – These are typically aquatic animals (animals that live in water)
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CH44 - Osmoregulation & Excretion Chapter 44 Regulating...

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