Lecture 3 - Basic Hydrological Concepts AOM 4643 Principles...

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Basic Hydrological Concepts AOM 4643 Principles and Issues in Environmental Hydrology
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Structure and Properties of Water Water is a held together by a covalent bond– one side has a negative charge and the other a positive charge. The positive end of one H 2 O molecule attracts the negative end of another => called hydrogen bond hydrogen bond is weaker than a covalent bond but very important. Hydrogen bond determines most of water’s unique properties O 2- H + H + 104.5 o Polar covalent bond (strong)
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Thermal Properties of Water boiling point and freezing point are higher than expected for its molecular weight (because of intermolecular attraction i.e. hydrogen bonds) water exists in solid, maximum density @ 4 o C ice floats, caused by hydrogen bonds forming tetrahedra at low temp; important in determining earth’s climate high specific heat capacity a large input of energy raises the temperature a relatively small amount; energy goes into breaking hydrogen bonds rather than raising the temperature
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Structural Properties of Water cohesive, sticks to itself high surface tension drops of water are spherical. capillarity – results of combination of adhesion to solid surfaces i.e. glass (water molecules are attracted to oxygen atoms in glass) by hydrogen bonds and cohesion to itself through surface tension; important for circulation of blood in body and water in soil capillary forces are what allow moist sand to maintain vertical trench walls, whereas dry sand can only maintain a slope of 30 o tiny menisci hold sand grains together through the hydrogen bonds
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Water as a Solvent universal solvent given enough time only a few natural substances will not dissolve in water. water dissolves substances by:
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2012 for the course AOE 4643 taught by Professor Graham during the Fall '11 term at University of Florida.

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Lecture 3 - Basic Hydrological Concepts AOM 4643 Principles...

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