Unformatted text preview: Social Policy and EthnoEthnoRacial Inequality Ineq alit
Alicia D. Simmons [email protected] April 19, 2010 Game Plan Group representation in American politics Reparations When Affirmative Action Was White Inequality & Democratic Responsiveness ( l (Gilens 2005) ) The question Wh Whose preferences are most i fl f t influential in ti l i shaping public policy? The data 1,781 public opinion questions asked of national samples of U.S. adults (1981-2002) (1981- Inequality & Democratic Responsiveness The answers A status quo bias exists High-income respondents views are more Highrespondents' closely linked to policy outcomes than those of middle- or low-income respondents middlelow- Inequality & Democratic Responsiveness The answers A status quo bias exists High-income respondents views are more Highrespondents' closely linked to policy outcomes than those of middle- or low-income respondents middlelow For many policies the opinions of different classes are roughly equivalent g y q When they are not, only high-income voices highmatter Who Loses in American Democracy (Hajnal 2009) (Hajnal l ) Descriptive representation: counting the representation: number of elected officials to see if their numbers are on par with population distributions Substantive representation: examining representation: policy outcomes to determine if they are in line with minority group interests Who Loses in American Democracy The question I th Is there another effective way t measure th ff ti to representation? The solution Counting winners and losers among voters Who Loses in American Democracy Key attributes Requires no subjective evaluation of group interests Incorporates the preferences of every voter p p y Can be used across many elections Limitations Does not directly address policy outcomes The elected leader may not be effective Minorities may not have a meaningful choice The preferences of non-voters are ignored f f non- Who Loses in American Democracy The data Voter News Service Surveys (1996-2004) (1996 Presidential (3) Gubernatorial (139) Senate (198) ( ) House (919) Mayoral contest dataset ( y (1991(1991-2002) ) National American Election Survey (2000 & 2004) Who Loses in American Democracy The findings N one group i completely shut out No is l t l h t t Who Loses in American Democracy The findings N one group i completely shut out No is l t l h t t There is a clear racial hierarchy of winning and losing Who Loses in American Democracy Why do blacks lose? Institutional factors Racial bloc voting Blacks would have to vote together Whites would have to vote together Blacks and whites would have to vote against each other Who Loses in American Democracy When do blacks win?
T Types of elections f l ti House Types of places Liberal/Democratic With larger black populations Reparations: Justice & Greed in Black & White (D Whi (Dawson & Popoff 2004) P ff Arguments for reparations Sl Slavery and the slave trade substantially d th l t d b t ti ll harmed blacks Post-slavery policies substantially harmed Postblacks Reparations: Justice & Greed in Black & White l k h Arguments against reparations Blacks are not owed anything No single group is responsible for slavery or g g p p y benefitted from it Only a tiny minority owned slaves and many gave their lives to free slaves Most Americans today don't have ties to slavery Reparations damage blacks by making them victims Blacks have already received reparations Blacks owe a debt to America Reparations: Justice & Greed in Black & White l k h The data N ti National Af i l African American Election Study A i El ti St d (2000) 605 blacks 724 whites Reparations: Justice & Greed in Black & White l k h The findings Blacks are much more supportive than whites of Apology to Asian Americans for internment Reparations to Asian Americans for internment p Apology to blacks for slavery Reparations to blacks for slavery Reparations: Justice & Greed in Black & White l k h
100 90 80 70 % agr reeing 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Apologize to Reparations for Apologize to Reparations for Asian Americans Asian Americans Apologize to Apologize to blacks Reparations for Reparations for blacks 4 26 43 30 75 59 Blacks Whites 79 67 Reparations: Justice & Greed in Black & White l k h
100 90 80 70 % ag greeing 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Equality achieved Equality soon No equality in lifetime Equality never 5 17 6 38 26 30 26 52 Blacks l k Whites Reparations: Justice & Greed in Black & White l k h Determinants of black support Shared fate Support for Jackson, Farrakhan or Sharpton Support for institutionalized black autonomy Determinants of white opposition Dete min nt hite oppo ition Hostility to claims of disenfranchisement in 2000 Support for Clinton or Bush The Cost of Being Black (Mazzocco, (Mazzocco, Brock, Brock, Olson and B B k B k Ol d Banaji 2006) ji The question Wh t is the perceived cost of being black and What i th i d t f b i bl k d how is it related to support for reparations? The method Contingent valuation: Ascribing a value to a valuation: set of circumstances that is counterfactual If X h happened to you, what should you be paid? dt h t h ld b id? The Cost of Being Black Study 1 Aim Initial demonstration Conditions Race Change State Change No TV The Cost of Being Black Study 1 Imagine that, although actually a Black person, you have always been considered a White person (Passing as White) and that a new government program offers a one time, tax-free taxcash gift to persons who can prove they have a Black Bl k ancestor. A you can easily provide such t As il id h proof, you are considering applying for the cash gift if it is sufficiently generous What amount of generous. cash would you require to continue your life, p publicly (and correctly) identified as Black? y( y) The Cost of Being Black Study 1 Aim Initial demonstration Conditions Race Change State Change No TV Median amounts requested Race Change - $1,500 State Change - $1,000 No TV - $ $1,000,000 The Cost of Being Black Study 2 Aim Does the cost of being black change if one can no longer pass as white? Conditions Race Change Race Change w/ no possibility of passing State Change No N TV The findings Median requested amounts are roughly the same as in Study 1 The Cost of Being Black Study 3 Aim Is the perceived cost of being black related to support for reparations or racial animosity? Conditions Race Change State Change No TV The fi di Th findings Cost of being black is positively correlated w/ support for reparations and amount requested Cost of being black is not related to racial animosity The Cost of Being Black Study 4 Aim Does support for reparations increase when awareness of white privilege is raised? Conditions Race Change (1/2 followed by 16 facts on white privilege) i il ) State Change No TV The findings Reading about white privilege had minimal effects The Cost of Being Black Study 5 Aim Does the cost of being black change if one is perceived to be black from birth onwards? Conditions Race Change State Change No TV Born black Born black followed by a list of racial disparities Same as race change except "America" is changed to "Atria" and "white/black" is changed to "majority/minority" The Cost of Being Black Study 5 Median requests Race Change - $1,000 State Change - $1 000 $1,000 No TV - $1,000,000 Born black - $5 500 $5,500 Born black (racial disparities) - $500,000 At i - $1 000 000 Atria $1,000,000 The Cost of Being Black Participants' Explanations i i ' l i 22% indicated black costs $300,000 3% indicated white costs $75 39% indicated racial parity p y $37.50 15% indicated trivial technicalities $1,000 21% indicated greed g $50,000 The Cost of Being Black Study 6 The aim Do people oppose reparations for any injustice that happened a long time ago? Kidnapping scenario The findings 61% agreed to be listed in a class-action lawsuit class Of the 24 that said no, 4 explained their choice by some variant of "it h i t f happened t l d too long ago" " When Affirmative Action Was White (Katznelson 2005) h (Katznelson l ) ...
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- Fall '11
- Social Policy, White people, American democracy, race change