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geology 101 study guide

geology 101 study guide - 04:39 Chapter 1 An Introduction...

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04:39 Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Geology Understand the workings behind the scientific method. What are the different steps and the balances and checks associated with the scientific method. Make a your observations, create a hypothesis, then formulate a theory What is the principal of uniformitarianism and how is it applied by geologists? The present is the key to the past Understand the nebular hypothesis and how it applies to the formation of our Solar System (sun and planets). Nebular Hypothesis- the hydrogen clumped up into balls and formed first- generation stars How did the Earth’s moon form? Why is the Earth’s orbital plane tilted? The moon was formed when a meteor hit the earth and sent a fragment into space. The impact tilted the earth on a 23 degree axis The Earth began to differentiate forming a stratified Earth. How does density change with depth? What are these zones (not necessary to memorize depths)? How are these zones (Fig 1.16) grouped? Which one makes up the tectonic plates? Which zones are strong and which ones are weak or ductile? The zones are the crust, asthenosphere, and lithosphere, and the deep mantel. The crust makes up the tectonic plates. The crust and then lithosphere are the strong and the asthenosphere and the deep mantel are the more ductile of the zones. How old is the Earth? 4.5 billion years old How did Earth’s continents, atmosphere and oceans form? The earth continents and oceans formed because the earth used to be a huge ball of magma and when it started to cool it created a crust forming our continents. And then there that made deep points where the water now runs into making our oceans. Did Mars undergo the same processes that occurred on Earth? The Earth has an external heat engine and internal heat engine. Why are they important? Where did the heat energy(s) originate which powers the internal and external heat engines? External heat engine - Solar Energy from the sun is the driving force powering the weather and climatic conditions. Solar energy affects the Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and Biosphere. Earth’s internal heat engine - is powered by __heat energy trapped__ during planetesimal bombardment and heat generated by radioactive element decay deep within the Earth. The Earth is an open system which exchanges mass and energy with outer space. What is the theory of plate tectonics? What is the driving force behind plate tectonics? Chapter 2 – Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Revolution Unfolds
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What is the continental drift hypothesis as advanced by Alfred Wegner? What evidence did he use to support his hypothesis? With so much evidence why was it not elevated to a theory – what were some of the problems? That the continents have separated over time but that the continents were just moving, it is the ocean floor that is moving. He saw that it fit together like a jigsaw puzzle and that there were similar landmarks on them. HE lacked mechanism and he thought that just the continents were moving and didn’t incorporate the seafloor
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geology 101 study guide - 04:39 Chapter 1 An Introduction...

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