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geology study guide - Chapter 15 Mass Wasting The processes...

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Chapter 15: Mass Wasting The processes that transport large quantities of earth down slope by gravity Factors that influence mass wasting Nature of slope material Solid Rock Stability may be reduced by weathering, deformation bedding planes, foliation Unconsolidated Material Angle of Repose The max. angle a slope of loose material will lie without falling Depends on nature of material Vegetation and roots hold earth together better Water Content Unsaturated (damp) sand is the most cohesive followed by dry sand, and then saturated Steepness of Slope How to classify mass wasting Nature of material (consolidated or unconsolidated) Speed Nature of movement (as one unit or as fluid) Types of mass wasting Rock Fall solid blocks fall rapidly from steep or vertical slope Forms talus Rock Avalanche flows by entraining air as it moves down slope moves extremely rapidly Rock Slide single mass of rock is released and moves rapidly along plane of weakness can create dams if rock mass falls into river Creep slowest mass wasting process deals with unconsolidated material causes once vertical objects to slant over time pistol butt trees Slump A rapid slide of unconsolidated material along a curved surface Flows Fluid mass movement (high water content) Types Earthflow soils, weathered shale and clay Mudflows/Lahars unconsolidated sediment and boulders Debris flows can carry huge boulders Debris Avalanche moves the fastest
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Chapter 16: Surface Water Running water/stream flow laminar flow: in straight paths, slow speeds turbulent flow: erratic fashion, fast speeds, erosive power Sediment transport/depostion Dissolved load
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