the development of transportation infrastructure

the development of transportation infrastructure - The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Development of Transportation The Infrastructure in 19th Century America Infrastructure 1 Public vs. Private: The Internal Improvements Public Debate Debate In 1800, the United States was geographically In large but with a small population. large Other than population centers, much of the Other infant United States was largely uninhabited. infant The vast expanses of wilderness made transportation difficult in a time before railroads. transportation In 1808, Secretary of State Albert Gallatin In issued Report on Roads, Canals, Harbours, and Rivers, a paper which advocated the Rivers paper construction of a national system of transportation infrastructure, funded by the tariff, to promote economic activity and provide for better defense. better The War of 1812 shelved Gallatin’s plan, but it The was reintroduced in 1817 by South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun. Senator Calhoun’s internal improvements bill passed Calhoun’s Congress by a bare majority, but was vetoed by President James Madison who contended that it was not the place of the federal government to build a transportation network. build Because of Madison’s veto, the responsibility Because of building transportation infrastructure fell to the individual states, which resulted in uneven development. development. Albert Albert Gallatin Gallatin President President James Madison Madison 2 Robert Fulton and the Steamboat On 7 August 1807, Robert Fulton On launched the steamboat Claremont on the Hudson River for a trip between New York City and Albany. between The Claremont completed the 150 The mile trip in just over 32 hours, an astonishing speed against the current for the time. current Although the Claremont was not the Although first steamboat, it was the first steamboat that was economically viable. viable. By 1811, Fulton’s had taken the By steamboat to the Mississippi River and, in 1819, the Savannah crossed the Atlantic Ocean on a combination of steam and sail. of The introduction of steam power The meant that transportation was no longer reliant on animals, wind, and currents. currents. "What sir, would you make a ship "What sail against the winds and current by lighting a bonfire under her deck? I pray you excuse me. I have no time to listen to such nonsense." Napoleon I to Robert Fulton Napoleon The Claremont 3 The Erie Canal Before the invention of the railroad, the Before The Erie Canal circa 1829 In its first year of operation 185,000 tons of In merchandise was moved on the Erie Canal. This included 562,000 bushels of wheat, 221,000 barrels of flour, and 435,000 gallons of whiskey. flour, only practical means of moving heavy objects around the country was by water. water. This proved an impediment to This commerce as the two major American ports, Baltimore and New York, were not served by rivers. not This meant that goods had to be This offloaded from barges and carried overland to the port for shipping. overland In 1817, months after Madison vetoed In the internal improvements bill, New York began construction of a canal to link New York Harbor with the Hudson River and the Great Lakes beyond. River When the canal was completed in When 1825, the cost of transporting one ton of wheat across New York fell from $100 to $5. A journey that had taken 20 days could now be competed in 10. 20 Though improved, the Erie Canal Though remains in operation remains 4 The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad In 1827, the Baltimore and Ohio In became the first railroad in the U.S. chartered to carry passengers and freight. freight. The railroad had not yet been The invented when the Erie Canal was built. built. Designed to link Baltimore Harbor Designed with the Ohio River, the B&O eventually covered the Eastern seaboard and reached as far west as Chicago and continued operation until 1986. until In 1830, there were 23 miles of In railroad in the United States. By 1840 it had increased to 2,808 miles of track. By 1860, 30,626 miles of track had been laid in the United States. had The Tom Thumb, the first locomotive on the B&O Railroad. locomotive 5 Railroads and the Civil War A Mayan Calendar President Madison’s 1817 President veto of the internal improvements bill left the development of transportation infrastructure to the various states. This led to wide disparities in transportation networks between states. between The industrialized Northern The states generally had greater need for transportation and more resources to invest than did the agricultural Southern states. Southern Map of American railroads in 1851. Note the disparity Map between the North and the South. between At the outbreak of the war, At the Northern states had roughly 20,000 miles of rail while Southern states had only 9,000 miles. only 6 Sherman’s March to the Sea In 1864, Union General William Tecumseh In Sherman launched an attack at the South’s ability to wage war. ability With an army of 100,000 men, Sherman With entered the South destroying the industrial and transportation network. and The South did not have enough soldiers to The both hold the front and resist Sherman, so Sherman was able to march through the South largely unopposed. South Sherman’s army would tear up railroads Sherman’s and heat the rails over a bonfire until they could be bent them around a tree trunk or telegraph pole. This would weaken the metal and make the rail unusable. The resultant twisted metal was called a “Sherman’s Necktie.” “Sherman’s Sherman burned Atlanta, the major Southern Sherman rail hub and Charleston, a major Southern port. With the loss of their transportation network, With the Confederacy was unable to supply its army in the field. This hastened the end of the war. the “That a single stem of railroad [from That Louisville to Atlanta], 473 miles long, supplied an army of 100,000 men and 35,000 animals for a period of 196 days . . . . That amount of food and forage would have taken 36,800 wagons of six mules . . . each day, a simple impossibility . . . in that region of the country.” country.” General William T. Sherman, “Memoirs,” Written during the Atlanta Campaign An example of a “Sherman’s Necktie” Necktie” 7 Mississippi River Steamboats Steamboats waiting at a dock With the success of the Claremont on the Hudson River, in 1811 With Robert Fulton brought the New Orleans to the Mississippi. to The steamboat quickly came to dominate commerce on the The Mississippi. Soon after their introduction, the cost of transporting one ton of merchandise from New Orleans to St. Louis had fallen from $23 to $13, a price that would further decrease as technology improved and more boats plied the waters. Between 1814 and 1834, the number of steamboats docking in New Orleans each year increased from 20 to 1200 1200 By the end of the Civil War, railroads had largely supplanted By steamboats. steamboats. Mississippi River steamboat culture is chronicled in the writings of Mississippi Mark Twain. Mark 8 Steamboat Wrecks Steamboat 19th Century Steamboats were, by any standard, incredibly dangerous. any Their wooden construction was Their vulnerable to objects in the water and fire. and The boilers necessary to power the The ship often exploded with enough force to reduce the boat to splinters. On 27 April 1865, the boilers on the On steamboat Sultana exploded near Memphis, killing 1,547 passengers Memphis, —more people than died on the —more Titanic. Titanic. Most of the people killed on the Most Sultana were freed Union POWs returning home from the war. war. A new Steamboat was only new expected to remain in service for a A map of steamboat wrecks found in only 160 miles of the Missouri River. only 9 The Transcontinental Railroad The The completion of the transcontinental railroad near The Promontory Point, Utah, 1869. Promontory The transcontinental railroad was the The greatest technological achievement of the 19th Century. 19 Stretching 1800 miles from Omaha to Stretching Sacramento, the railroad allowed the complete integration of the western states into the Union. into The transcontinental railroad created The western cities such as Omaha and Denver. Denver. The path of the original line is closely The mirrored by Interstate 80 today. mirrored The railroad was built by two companies; the The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific which received a payment from the federal government for every mile of track completed. completed. The Central Pacific had a much more The difficult path, having to blast through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Sierra An unknown number of people, An primarily Chinese immigrants were killed in blasting accidents due to the unstable explosives of the time. the The flood of white settlers the railroad The enabled doomed the Plains Indians. enabled The railroad cut the cost of traveling to The 10 San Francisco by 90%. San Panama Canal By the turn of the century, French efforts to By build a canal through Panama faltered primarily due to technological limitations and malaria. and In 1904, the United States, viewing a canal In as essential to the economy sought to take up construction. up Panama was, at the time, part of Columbia. Panama The Columbian government, realizing the economic necessity of the project for the United States, demanded a large cash payment to resume construction. payment Rather than pay the Columbians, the United Rather States engineered a revolution to make Panama an independent country. Panama To discourage Columbian interference To with the revolution, a U.S. Navy gunboat was stationed off of the coast. gunboat On the same day that Panama declared On independence, it granted the United States the right to construct the canal. the The Americans succeeded where the The French failed because of improvements in canal technology and quinine, a cure for malaria. malaria. When the canal was competed in 1904, a When ship traveling from San Francisco to New York could save 8,000 miles from its journey. journey. Boats building the Panama Canal Over 30 years of construction between the Americans and Over French, 80,000 laborers worked on the canal, 30,000 of whom died. died. 11 Multimedia Citation Citation Slide 1: Slide 2: and Slide 3: and Slide 4: Slide 5: Slide 6: Slide 7: Slide 8: Slide 9: Slide 10: Slide 11: 12 ...
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