JB-2050_Ch3

JB-2050_Ch3 - Chapter 3: Sounds of Language Phonetics: the...

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Chapter 3: Sounds of Language
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Phonetics : the study of the characteristics of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics : how speech sounds are made (articulated). - What the articulators like the teeth, tongue, lips, hard and soft palate etc…are doing in the mouth and elsewhere to create sound Acoustic phonetics : physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air. how sounds are transmitted Auditory phonetics : deals with the perception (ear) of speech sounds. how the brain perceives sound – what happens in the brain to translate sound waves in the ear into sound in the brain
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Phonetics allows us to describe the inventory of available sounds in English, how they are related to and form combinations with each other, and how they vary systematically from dialect to dialect. We are focusing on articulatory phonetics – how we manipulate our speech organs to produce sounds
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3 main factors Voicing Place of articulation Manner of articulation
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How speech sounds are produced. The air is pushed out by the lungs up through the trachea to the larynx. The vocal folds (inside the larynx) take two positions: voiced (+) and voiceless (-). While breathing, your vocal folds are spread far apart. They remain apart for voiceless and are closed for voiced . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajbcJiYhFKY
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Position of vocal cords – larynx (Adam’s apple). Voiced: vocal folds are together (tight) and vibrating. (zzzzz), /b/and /d/ Voiceless: vocal folds are open (relaxed) and not vibrating (ssssss), /p/ and /t/. /s/ v. /z/ : /s/ voiceless and /z/ voiced /f/ v. /v/ : /f/ voiceless and /v/ voiced / θ / v. /  / - /th/ voiceless and /th/voiced
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Where the sound is made. Most consonants are produced by using the tongue and other parts of the mouth –shape the oral cavity through which air is passing. The terms used to describe the sounds we produce involve the place of articulation. Start at the front of the mouth and work back. Remember to keep the voiced/voiceless in mind. Phonetic symbols are in brackets.
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©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds . London: Routledge.
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Bilabials Labiodentals Dentals Alveolars Alveo-palatals Velars Glottal
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Bilabial /p/ in pat /b/ in bat /m/ in mat /w/ in wish
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©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds . London: Routledge.
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Sound formed with a constriction between the upper teeth and lower lip.
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JB-2050_Ch3 - Chapter 3: Sounds of Language Phonetics: the...

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