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JB-2050_Ch4 - The Sound Patterns of Language Chapter 4...

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Chapter 4: The Sound Patterns of Language
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Bilabial   Labiodental Dental/interdental   Alveolar                   Palatal                   Velar          Glottal          
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Stops                        Fricatives   Glides and liquids   Affricates   Nasals   Voiced   Voiceless   
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-OPnBz6ctU&feature=relmfu   Phonetics is the study of characteristics of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics is the study of how speech sounds  are articulated. The sounds we discussed last time were idealizations  because there is a great deal of variability in how those  sounds are produced. The sources of variability in articulation are interspeaker  variability and intraspeaker variability.
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Interspeaker variability :  any two people’s  productions of a given speech sound will differ  due to physical differences in their vocal tracts  Intraspeaker variability :  any individual produces a  given speech sound differently in different  situations  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=00mkmvzZFyk&feature=related     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgS4jmvHHYo   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JYMlPqMnPXs&feature=related  
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Normal individual variability in size of vocal folds, length  of oral cavity, etc… Whispering vs. shouting tired vs. rested,  with or without a cold Cultural/dialectal differences
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Phonology :  description of the systems and patterns of speech  sounds in a language.  - “serves as the underlying design, blueprint for sounds” - It is concerned with the abstract aspects of language sounds  rather than how they are physically articulated. In phonology, distinguish between phonemes and phones. Phonemes    vs     Phones   /t/    ?????             /t/   star, skater, trip, tea, bat
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Phonemes : meaning-distinguishing sounds /t/ = a ‘t’ written between slashes is called a phoneme, which is a  meaningful-distinguishing sound type in a particular language. bit       vs        big Phonemic transcription: process of transcribing a word using consonant  and vowel symbols and putting them between slashes.
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