Sept 3 NOTES.docx - EES:1030 EARTHQUAKES Study Guide...

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EES:1030EARTHQUAKESStudy Guide Questions1.How does stress differ from strain, and how does elastic rebound theory relate to these twoterms?2.What controls the global distribution of earthquakes (where do they primarily occur)?3.Know which types of faults are associated with different boundary types. We will learn moreabout this when we talk structures.4.Know our earthquake anatomy diagram - hypocenter/focus vs. epicenter.5.You should be familiar with our four different types of seismic waves and their properties.Relatedly, why can scientists learn about the Earth’s interior by studying seismic waves-what dowaves do?6.You should be able to match our three earthquake scales to their definitions, and also knowwhich one we use most often.7.How does earthquake magnitude relate to earthquake frequency?8.How much larger is the wave amplitude for a Mw7 vs. a Mw6 earthquake? How much moreenergy is released?9.You should be able to match earthquake hazards to their definitions/descriptions. You shouldALSO know what kind of plate boundary tsunami occur on, and how tsunami work.10. Historically, where and why have we had large earthquakes within the central US?11. Can a dog predict an earthquake? Can we make an earthquake???12. Oh no, there’s an earthquake!!!!! What should you do????????Lecture DetailsBusiness: first homework assignment and guided learning exploration due SUNDAY at 11:59 PM!Major takeaways:1.Earthquakes happen because the Earth’s lithosphere will deform elastically to a point, but willthen snap back into its original shape and release energy as seismic waves.2.Earthquakes generate different kinds of seismic waves with different properties. The study ofseismic waves has allowed scientists to learn about the interior of the Earth.3.Ground shaking doesn’t generally kill people- other hazards like falling buildings kill people. Ifan earthquake happens you shouldDROP,COVER, andHOLD ON!Seismology:the study of earthquakesEarthquake: release of energy from rocks that were locked.Cold, brittle rocks build up strain alongfault planes until elastic strain in surrounding rocks overcomes frictional force, then release strain over atime period of seconds to minutes.This generates an earthquake!Stress:the force per unit area exerted on an objectStrain: the resulting deformationElastic strain(what we see in the rocks bordering fault plains): this change in rock shape resulting from

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