Exam 2 key sv

Exam 2 key sv - Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
...

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Unformatted text preview: Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 Life Sciences 2 Midterm #2 Question # #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 Total Points p.
1
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 p.
2
 Two Point Questions 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1) If
femur
length
scales
isometrically
with
body
mass,
what
would
you
expect
 the
scaling
coefficient
to
be?

If
you
measured
these
variables
and
found
that
 the
coefficient
was
one‐half
(1/2),
how
would
you
describe
the
relationship
 between
mass
and
femur
length
(use
the
two‐word
phrase)?
(2
points)
 The
scaling
coefficient
if
isometric
should
be
1/3
(length/mass)
(1
point)
 If
the
coefficient
is
½
(0.5)
then
the
relationship
is
positively
allometric
(they
 have
to
use
the
term)
(1
point)
 2) In
mammals,
brain
mass
scales
to
the
0.75
power
of
body
mass.

Is
this
 isometric
scaling?

Very
briefly,
why
or
why
not?
(2
points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 No
this
is
not
isometric
scaling
(1
point)
 Mass
should
scale
to
another
mass
with
an
exponent
of
1.

If
the
scaling
 exponent
is
0.75
this
is
less
than
what
is
expected
via
isometry
(they
could
 say
it
negatively
allometric)
(1
point)
 3) How
do
steroid
hormones
and
protein
hormones
differ
from
one
another
in
 the
macromolecular
composition
and
in
their
mechanism
of
action.
(2
points)
 
 Proteins
are
long
chains
of
amino
acids.
(0.5
points)

Proteins
act
via
second
 messenger
systems
and
have
receptors
on
the
cell
membrane.
(0.
5
points)
 
 Steroids
are
small
lipid
soluble
molecules
(derivatives
of
cholesterol
is
also
 correct).
(0.5
points)

Steroids
activate
transcription
directly
via
 transcription
factors
within
the
nucleus
to
affect
gene
expression
and
have
 receptors
in
the
cytoplasm
of
cells.
(0.5
points)
 
 4) Name
the
two
types
of
bone
growth
and
list
one
specific
bone
that
exhibits
 each
type
of
growth.

(2
points)
 
 Endochondral
bone
growth
(0.5
points)

 Bones
that
exhibit
this
type
of
growth
include
all
long
bones
in
the
body
 (have
to
list
one)
(0.5
points).


 
 Intramembranous
bone
growth
(0.5
points)

 Bones
that
exhibit
this
type
of
growth
includes
the
bones
of
the
skull
and
the
 clavicle
(have
to
list
one)
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 5) 6) 7) 8) p.
3
 
 
 
 Draw
a
sarcomere.

Include
and
label
the
following
elements:
z‐line,
actin,
 myosin
and
titin.
(2
points)
 
 0.5
point
for
each
structure
(see
below)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Actin
 Myosin
 
 
 
 List
the
two
structures
that
communicate
changes
in
muscle
length
and
 changes
in
muscle
force
to
the
central
nervous
system?
(Be
sure
to
 distinguish
which
structure
senses
length
change
and
which
structure
 senses
changes
in
force.)
(2
points)
 
 Golgi
tendon
organs
–
sense
changes
in
muscle
force
(1
point)
 
 Spindle
fibers
(muscle
spindles)
–
sense
changes
in
muscle
length
(1
point)
 
 
 Describe
how
calcium
acts
within
a
sarcomere
to
enable
myosin
heads
to
 bind
to
actin.
(2
points)
 
 Calcium
binds
to
the
troponin
(1.0
points)
which
moves
tropomyosin
of
the
 myosin
binding
site
of
actin
(1.0
points)
which
allows
myosin
to
bind
to
actin
 and
form
a
cross‐bridge.
 
 Oxygenated
blood
is
transported
to
the
brain
by
the
internal
carotid
arteries,
 one
on
the
left
side
of
the
neck
and
one
on
the
right
side.
If
someone
 temporarily
blocks
your
left
carotid
artery,
how
does
oxygenated
blood
still
 reach
the
left
hemisphere
of
your
brain
to
prevent
your
neurons
from
dying?
 (2
points)
 
 They
should
discuss
redundant
circulation
so
that
even
if
you
block
one
 carotid
artery
there
are
other
ways
for
blood
to
get
to
the
left
hemisphere
of
 the
brain.

Another
answer
they
could
give
would
be
to
mention
specifically
 the
Circle
of
Willis
which
allows
blood
to
cross
from
the
right
side
of
the
 brain
to
the
left
side
of
the
brain.

Both
anwers
should
be
given
full
credit
 (the
specific
and
general
answer).
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 p.
4
 
 
 9) Which
anatomical
part
of
our
brain
has
expanded
dramatically
during
 evolution
in
comparison
to
other
species?

What
part
of
the
brain
coordinates
 motor
function?
(2
points)
 
 The
cerebrum
(or
neocortex
or
neopallium)
has
expanded
dramatically
 during
evolution
(1
point).

The
cerebellum
coordinates
motor
function
(
1
 point).
 
 
 10) Below
is
a
series
of
pictures
by
Edweard
Muybridge
of
a
man
walking
up
 stairs.

 Frame
1
 
 2
 
 3
 
 4
 
 5
 
 6
 
 From
frame
three
to
six,
is
the
vastus
lateralis
in
the
right
leg
acting
eccentrically
 (lengthening
contraction)
or
concentrically
(shortening
contraction)?

(1
point)
 Concentric
contraction
(shortening
contraction)
(1
point).
 
 What
is
the
major
action
of
the
left
ankle
joint
between
frames
one
to
three
and
 name
a
muscle
responsible
for
this
action
at
the
ankle
joint?
(1
point)
 Plantarflexion
or
ankle
extension
(0.5
points)
 Triceps
surae,
gastrocnemius
or
soleus
are
all
correct
and
should
receive
full
credit
 (0.5
points)
 
 
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 p.
5
 Five
Point
Questions

 
 
 11) Draw
a
cross‐section
of
the
spinal
cord
and
label
the
dorsal
root
ganglion,
the
 dorsal
root,
the
ventral
root,
grey
matter,
white
matter,
the
axon
and
cell
 body
of
an
efferent
neuron,
the
axon
and
cell
body
of
an
interneuron,
and
the
 axon
and
cell
body
of
an
afferent
neuron
(4
points).

 
 They
do
not
need
the
arrows
showing
the
direction
of
the
signal.
 
 0.5
points
each
for
labeling
and
correctly
drawing
 a)

dorsal
root
ganglion
(where
the
cell
bodies
are)
 b)

the
dorsal
root
 c)

the
ventral
root
 d)

the
grey
matter
 e)

the
white
matter
 f)

the
axon
and
cell
body
of
the
efferent
(motor)
neuron
 g)

the
axon
and
cell
body
of
the
afferent
(sensory)
neuron
 h)
the
axon
and
cell
body
of
the
interneuron
 
 
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 
 What
differentiates
grey
matter
from
white
matter?
(1
point)

 p.
6
 
 For
full
credit
they
can
say
that
grey
matter
is
composed
of
cell
bodies
OR
that
white
 matter
is
composed
on
myelinated
axons.
(1
point)
 
 12) Draw
an
excitatory
synapse.

Label
the
axon
terminal,
all
major
ion
channels
 associated
with
the
axon
terminal,
the
post‐synaptic
cell,
structures
where
 neurotransmitter
is
stored
and
locations
where
neurotransmitter
is
released
 (3
points).
 
 
 0.5
points
each
students
must
label
the
 a)

axon
terminal
 b)
calcium
channels
in
the
presynaptic
cell
 c)
ligand
gated
channels
in
the
post‐synaptic
cell
(they
can
label
these
as
sodium,
 potassium
or
chloride
channels;
they
do
not
have
to
say
ligand
gated)
 d)

they
have
to
label
the
post‐synaptic
cell
 e)
the
synaptic
vesicles
(structures
where
neurotransmitter
is
stored
–
found
in
the
 presynaptic
cell)
 f)

the
synaptic
cleft
(the
location
where
the
neurotransmitter
is
released
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 p.
7
 Graph
the
change
in
membrane
potential
that
occurs
in
the
dendrite
of
the
 post
synaptic
cell

over
time
when
neurotransmitter
binds
to
the
post‐ synaptic
cell
membrane
receptors.
(Be
sure
to
label
the
axes
on
your
 graph.)
(2
points)
 
 0.5
point
–
label
threshold
OR
okay
is
the
potential
is
clearly
low
(1‐5
mV)
and
 below
where
threshold
would
be
 0.5
points
–
have
the
line
representing
membrane
potential
go
positive
relative
to
 the
resting
membrane
potential

 0.5
point
–
the
line
cannot
go
higher
than
threshold
(if
they
do
not
draw
threshold
 you
will
have
to
use
your
best
judgement
as
to
whether
they
are
drawing
an
action
 potential
(incorrect)
or
a
graded
potential);
there
should
be
some
numbers/units
on
 the
y
axis
to
guide
your
judgement
 0.5
points
–
axes
are
correctly
labeled
with
units
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 p.
8
 
 
 13) Draw
the
force‐length
graph
for
muscle.

Include
the
curves
for
active
force
 generation
and
passive
force
generation.

Clearly
indicate
“100%
resting
 length”
on
your
length
axis.
(Be
sure
to
label
your
axes)
(3
points)


 
 
 1.0
point
for
the
active
curve
(the
curve
should
be
correctly
shaped
and
peak
at
 100%
resting
length)
 1.0
point
for
the
passive
curve
(‐0.5
if
it
does
not
start
at
100%
rest
length
which
 they
can
also
label
as
L0)
 0.5
points
for
correctly
labeled
axes
 0.5
points
for
correctly
labeling
100%
resting
length
 
 
 Draw
a
force‐velocity
curve
for
muscle.

Circle
and
label
the
point
on
the
 
 force‐velocity
curve
where
the
muscle
is
isometric.
(Be
sure
to
label
your
 
 axes)
(2
points)
 
 
 1.0
point
for
the
force
velocity
curve
(the
axes
can
be
in
either
order)
 0.5
points
for
labeling
0
velocity
as
the
isometric
point
 0.5
points
for
correctly
labeling
the
axes
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 p.
9
 
 14) You
go
running
with
your
teaching
fellow
on
Saturday.

It
begins
to
drizzle
 and
you
feel
rain
on
your
skin.
 A) Which
category
of
nerve
cells
is
responsible
for
conducting
the
signal
to
 the
CNS
so
that
you
sense
the
rain?
(1
point)
 
 Afferent
or
sensory
nerves
(either
is
correct)
 
 B) Which
category
of
nerve
cells
is
responsible
for
conducting
impulses
from
 the
CNS
to
your
muscles?
(1
point)
 
 Efferent
or
motor
nerves
(either
is
correct
 
 C) Your
stomach
begins
to
growl
because
you
did
not
eat
breakfast.

What
 division
of
the
nervous
system
is
responsible
for
stimulating
activity
in
 the
stomach
and
intestine?
(1
point)
 
 Parasympathetic
nervous
system
 
 
 D) You
don’t
look
when
you
cross
the
street
near
the
end
of
your
run,
and
a
 car
almost
hits
you.
You
quickly
forget
about
your
hunger
as
your
 heartbeat
accelerates.
What
division
of
the
nervous
system
is
responsible
 for
the
“flight‐or‐fight”
response?
(1
point)
 
 Sympathetic
Nervous
System
 
 E) You
smile
as
a
rainbow
comes
out
after
the
rain
stops.
What
region
of
the
 brain
receives
and
processes
information
from
the
optic
nerve?
(1
point)
 
 Occipital
lobe
of
the
brain
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 
 15) Using
the
concept
of
a
joint
moment
or
torque,
describe
why
human
 locomotion
is
less
costly
at
the
hip
than
a
chimp
moving
bipedally.

What
 mechanism
is
used
to
save
energy
in
both
the
human
and
the
chimp
during
 walking
and
what
mechanism
is
used
to
save
energy
during
running?
(5
 points)
 p.
10
 
 The
answer
to
the
first
part
of
the
question
(why
is
human
locomotion
les
costly
at
 the
hip
than
a
chimp
moving
bipedally)
should
include
three
components:
 
 
 
 Human
locomotion
at
the
hip
is
less
costly
because
the
moment
arm
at
the
 
 hip
(r)
is
smaller
in
humans
than
in
chimpanzees
(1
point).


 
 
 Torque
=
moment
arm
x
force
(1
point).


 
 
 Since
humans
have
to
exert
less
torque
at
the
hip
and
humans
use
less
 
 muscle.
(1
point)
 
 For
the
second
part
of
the
question
–
what
mechanism
is
used
to
save
energy
during
 walking
 
 Humans
walk
as
an
inverted
pendulum
or
they
can
say
that
kinetic
and
 
 potential
energy
are
out
of
phase
so
that
energy
is
converted
from
one
form
 
 to
the
other.
(1
point)
 
 For
the
third
part
of
the
equation
‐
what
mechanism
is
used
to
save
energy
during
 running
 
 Humans
use
a
bouncing
gait
during
running
and
store
and
release
energy
in
 
 elastic
structures
(tendons).
(1
point)
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 TF
Name:
 
 
 
 p.
11
 16) Draw
stress/strain
curves
for
bone
and
cartilage
on
the
same
graph.

For
 each
curve
indicate
differences
in
failure
stress,
failure
strain
and
stiffness.

 (Be
sure
to
label
all
axes)
(4
points)
 The
correct
graph
should
have
a
line
for
cartilage
(red)
and
a
line
for
bone
(blue)
–
 tendon
is
not
asked
for.


 
 0.5
point
for
line
for
bone
 0.5
point
for
line
for
cartilage
 0.5
point
for
failure
stress
for
bone
 0.5
point
for
failure
strain
for
bone
 0.5
point
for
failure
stress
for
cartilage
 0.5
point
for
failure
strain
for
cartilage
 1.0
point
for
indicating
that
the
slope
of
the
lines
is
equal
to
stiffness
 
 Students
can
also
give
verbal
definition
of
the
failure
stress
and
strain
for
bone
and
 cartilage
but
they
need
to
clearly
explain
that
bone
is
~60x
as
stiff
as
cartilage
and
 3.0x
as
strong.
 
 
 What
do
the
stress/strain
curves
tell
you
about
the
mechanical
role
of
bone
 
 and
the
mechanical
role
of
cartilage?
(1
point)
 0.5 points bone is stiff and strong 0.5 points cartilage is compliant and tough it acts like a shock-absorber. 
 ...
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