Final Exam 2009 Key

Final Exam 2009 Key - Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 Life...

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Unformatted text preview: Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 Life Sciences 2 Midterm #3 Question # #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 Total 
 Points p.
1
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
2
 1) How
do
higher
primates
see
the
color
red
and
what
is
the
evolutionary
 significance
of
this
ability?
(2
points)
 1
pt.
–
primates
have
cones
that
respond
to
red
wavelengths
of
light
 1
pt.
–
this
allows
them
to
determine
when
fruit
is
ripe
and
when
leaves
are
 tender;
also
helps
to
see
details
and
other
things
rich
in
color
(e.g
poisonous
 insects)
 
 
 2) Name
two
sensory
organs
that
utilize
hair
cells
and
briefly
describe
where
 those
hair
cells
are
located
in
each
organ.
(2
points)
 1
pt
–
the
cochlea
utilizes
hair
cells
and
these
cells
are
located
in
the
Organ
of
 Corti
 1
pt
–
Hair
cells
are
located
in
the
semicircular
canal,
the
saccule
and
the
 utricle
in
the
ampulla

 
 3) Name
the
embryonic
germ
layer
that
develops
into
the
epithelial
lining
of
the
 mouth
and
the
germ
layer
that
develops
into
the
epithelial
lining
of
the
 digestive
tract.
(2
points)
 1
pt
–
the
epithelial
lining
of
the
mouth
is
derived
from
the
ectoderm
 1
pt
–
the
epithelial
lining
of
the
digestive
tract
is
derived
from
endoderm
 
 4) Name the two major cell types in the stomach and describe what each of them synthesize and secrete. (2 points)
 1 pt – chief cells in the stomach secret pepsinogen 1 pt – parietal cells in the stomach secrete HCl 
 5) What
is
the
primary
source
of
heat
gain
and
the
primary
source
of
heat
loss
 in
all
terrestrial
mammals
during
exercise?

(2
points)
 1
pt
–
the
primary
source
of
heat
gain
is
metabolic
heat
gain
(0.5
points
for
 muscle
contraction
 1
pt
–
the
primary
source
of
heat
loss
is
evaporative
water
loss
(0.5
points
for
 sweating
because
not
all
mammals
sweat)
 
 6) What
is
the
thermoneutral
zone
and
what
is
its
significance?
(2
points)
 1
pt
–
the
thermoneutral
zone
is
the
area
of
the
metabolic
rate
versus
 ambient
temperature
curve
that
is
flat
(i.e.
no
change
in
MR
with
change
in
 temperature)
 1
pt
–
in
the
thermoneutral
zone
physiological
and
behavioral
mechanisms
 can
be
used
to
maintain
a
stable
internal
temperature
and
metabolic
rate
 does
not
have
to
increase
 
 7) What
signal
causes
the
release
of
ADH,
and
on
what
part
of
the
nephron
does
 ADH
act?
(2
points)
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 1
pt
–
an
increase
in
osmolarity
or
dehydration
or
a
decrease
in
blood
 pressure
or
blood
volume
(any
of
these
are
correct)
stimulates
the
release
of
 ADH
 1
pt
–
ADH
acts
on
the
medullary
collecting
duct
 
 8) What
is
the
fate
of
the
mesonephric
tubules
in
an
embryo
that
retains
the
 Wolffian
ducts?

Will
this
embryo
develop
into
a
male
or
female?
(2
points)
 1
pt
–
the
mesonephric
tubules
will
become
the
seminiferous
tubules
 1
pt
–
the
embryo
will
develop
into
a
male
 
 9) 
What
happens
to
the
osmolarity
of
the
extracellular
space
as
the
loop
of
 Henle
extends
deeper
into
the
medulla?

What
happens
to
the
osmolarity
of
 the
filtrate
within
the
loop
of
Henle
as
it
travels
deeper
into
the
medulla?
(2
 points)
 1
pt
–
the
osmolarity
of
the
extracellular
space
will
increase
as
the
loop
of
 Henle
extends
deeper
into
the
medulla
 1
pt
–
the
osmolarity
of
the
filtrate
within
the
loop
of
Henle
will
also
increase
 as
it
travels
deeper
into
the
medulla
 
 10)What
two
hormones
are
necessary
in
order
for
spermatogenesis
to
occur
in
 the
seminiferous
tubules?
(2
points)
 1
pt
–
testosterone
 1
pt
–
FSH
–
0.5
points
for
LH
 Five
point
questions
 
 11)
Name three muscles that adduct (close) the jaw during chewing (3 points). Name one muscle that protracts the jaw (1 point). In what kinds of chews are muscles equally active on both sides of the jaw (1 point)?
 Adductors - 1 pt – medial pterygoid, 1 pt – temporalis & 1 pt – masseter Protractor – 1 pt – lateral pterygoid Chewing Activity Type – 1 pt Incision 12)Describe
the
path
of
a
beam
of
light
from
when
it
first
hits
your
left
eye
to
 when
it
hits
the
retina.
(3
points)

How
does
the
signal
produced
by
the
light
 travel
from
the
retina
to
the
visual
cortex
of
the
brain?
(1
point)
 Approximately
what
percentage
of
signals
from
the
left
eye
go
to
the
right
 visual
cortex?
(1
point)
 Pathway
of
light
through
the
eye:
 Cornea

aqueous
humor

pupil

lens

vitreous
humor

retina
(0.5
 points
each).

Instead
of
aqueous
humor
they
can
put
anterior
chamber
and
 in
place
of
vitreous
humor
they
can
put
posterior
chamber.
(instead
of
pupil
 they
can
say
center
of
iris)
 p.
3
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
4
 
 Pathway
of
signal
to
brain
 Optic
nerve

optic
chiasm

optic
tract

occipital
lobe
of
brain
or
 primary
visual
cortex
(0.25
points
each)
 50%
of
the
signal
from
the
left
eye
go
to
the
right
visual
cortex
(1
pt)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 13)Neanderthals
are
an
extinct
species
of
hominid
that
are
closely
related
to
 Homo
sapiens.

They
lived
in
Europe
during
a
period
when
this
region
was
 considerably
colder
than
it
is
now.

On
average,
Neanderthals
probably
(a)
 weighed
a
little
more
than
humans
and
(b)
had
a
shorter,
stockier
build
than
 modern
humans.
Explain
how
each
of
these
differences,
independently,
could
 be
interpreted
as
an
adaptation
for
cold.
(2
points)

Graph
the
metabolic
rate
 versus
ambient
temperature
for
both
a
modern
human
and
a
Neanderthal
 (on
the
same
graph).
(3
points)
 
 1
pt
–
for
weight
they
could
talk
about
increased
fat
layer
which
will
decrease
 conductance
 1
pt
–
shorter
and
stockier
means
a
decreased
surface
area
to
volume
ratio
so
 they
will
lose
less
heat
via
conduction
(and
convection)
1
pt,
too,

if
they
just
 write
Bergmann’s
and
Allen’s
laws.

 Graph
–
if
graph
is
incorrect
then
0
points
are
awarded.

If
graph
is
correct
 points
should
be
awarded
as
follows:
 
 1.5
points
for
Neanderthal
line
(blue)
it
must
demonstrate
a
lower
temp
for
 the
lower
critical
temperature
(but
labels
not
needed)
if
not
‐0.5,
it
must
also
 demonstrate
a
lower
conductance
(lower
slope
below
the
LCT)
if
not
‐0.5,
 finally
it
must
demonstrate
a
lower
upper
critical
temperature
(again
labels
 not
necessary)
than
the
human
if
not
‐0.5.
 
 1.5
points
for
modern
human
line
(red)
it
must
demonstrate
a
higer
temp
for
 the
lower
critical
temperature
(but
labels
not
needed)
if
not
‐0.5,
it
must
also
 demonstrate
a
higher
conductance
(lower
slope
below
the
LCT)
if
not
‐0.5,
 finally
it
must
demonstrate
a
higher
upper
critical
temperature
(again
labels
 not
necessary)
than
the
human
if
not
‐0.5.
 
 If
axes
are
not
labeled
‐0.5
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 
 p.
5
 
 14)
On
the
diagram
below
label
the
neural
tube,
the
somites,
the
notochord,
the
 dorsal
aorta,
the
gut
tube,
the
coelomic
cavity,
nephric
ridge
and
the
genital
 ridge.
(4
points)

Will
this
embryo
become
a
boy
or
a
girl?
(1
point)
 Diagram
–
0.5
points
each
for
structures
that
are
correctly
drawn
and
 labeled.
 1
pt
–
this
is
a
sexually
indifferent
stage
and
it
is
unknown
if
the
embryo
will
 be
a
boy
or
girl
(they
do
not
have
to
say
sexually
indifferent
but
they
do
have
 to
say
unknown).
 
 
 Notochord
 Neural
tube
 somite
 Dorsal
aorta
 coelom
 Nephric
Ridge
 Gut
tube
 Genital
ridge
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 Life Sciences 2 Final Exam Question # #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 Total 
 Points p.
6
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
7
 1) Name
two
portal
systems
found
in
the
body
and
the
describe
the
function
of
 each.
(5
points)
 2.
5
points
‐
Hypothalamus
–
pituitary

portal
system
or
hypophyseal
portal
 system
–
carries
hormones
produced
by
the
hypothalamus
to
the
anterior
 pituitary
and
prevents
dilution
of
the
hormones
in
general
circulation
 
 2.5
points
–
Hepatic
portal
system
–
carries
blood
from
the
digestive
system
 to
the
liver
for
processing
and
detoxification
 
 2) List
two
areas
in
the
body
where
changes
in
pressure
drive
the
physiological
 movement
of
fluids.
(2
points)
Briefly
explain
how
changes
in
pressure
are
 deleterious
to
those
systems?

(2
points)

What
is
a
different
mechanism
by
 which
pressure
can
affect
the
movement
of
a
substance
across
a
membrane?
 (1
point)
 Two
areas
where
pressure
drives
the
movement
of
fluids
(1
point
each)
–
 
 respiratory
system
or
lungs;
circulatory
system
or
heart
 Changes
in
pressure
are
deleterious
to
the
system(s)
–
multiple
correct
 answers
 
 1
point
in
the
lungs
–
asthma
or
collapsed
lung
 
 1
point
in
the
circulatory
system
–
increased
pressure
(hypertension)
 
 makes
the
heart
have
to
work
harder
to
move
blood
throughout
the
 
 body
 Mechanism
by
which
pressure
can
affect
movement
across
a
membrane
(1
 point)
 
 Any
answer
that
includes
diffusion
or
osmosis
(ex
kidney
tubules,
 
 capillary
bed,
alveoli
etc)
 3) A)

What
dimensional
measurement
determines
the
maximum
force
of
a
 
 muscle’s
contraction?

(1
point)
 
 1
point
–
cross
sectional
area
 
 
 B)


What
is
the
slope
of
the
log/log
plot
expected
to
be
under
isometry
if
this

 
 measurement
is
plotted
on
the
y‐axis
against
body
mass?
(1
point)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 C)
 If
the
slope
were
¾
in
one
group
of
organisms,
and
assuming
isometry
is

 
 the
‘normal’
condition,
then
what
sort
of
allometry
does
this
group

 
 exhibit?
(1
point)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1
point
Slope
=
2/3;
If
they
come
up
with
a
different
variable
for
A
and
the
 relationship
is
correct
give
them
credit
(ex
is
they
say
length
slope
=1/3;

 if
they
say
mass
slope
=
1)
 1
point
–
positive
allometry;
again
make
sure
the
answer
matches
the

 slope
that
they
get
for
B
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 
 
 
 D)
 What
are
the
functional
tradeoffs
between
a
muscle
with
longer
fibers

 
 versus
a
muscle
with
shorter
fibers,
if
both
muscles
have
the
same


 
 volume?
(2
points)
 
 
 
 
 1
point
–
a
muscle
with
longer
fibers
will
be
able
to
contract
a
longer

 distance
more
rapidly
 
 
 
 
 p.
8
 1
point
–
a
muscle
with
shorter
fibers
will
have
a
greater
cross
sectional

 area
and
be
able
to
produce
more
force
 4) What
differences
in
V02max
do
you
predict
between
a
chimpanzee
and
a
 human
and
why?
(2
points)
List
2
ways
that
the
cardiovascular
system
may
 be
modified
and
one
way
the
respiratory
system
may
be
modified
to
increase
 VO2max.

(3
points)
 
 1
point
–
the
human
will
have
a
higher
VO2
max
 
 
 
 1
point
–
the
VO2
max
will
be
higher
because
humans
have
evolved
for
 economical
running
(they
could
talk
about
any
of
the
human
versus
chimps
 adaptations
here
for
full
credit)
 
 
 3
points
–
1
point
each
for
each
adaptation
which
from
a
physiological
 perspective
will
increase
VO2
max
 5) Cone
snails
produce
a
variety
of
toxins
that
affect
the
neuromuscular
system
 of
their
prey
in
a
variety
of
ways.

Briefly
explain
why
each
of
the
following
 effects
would
immobilize
a
cone
snail's
prey:

 
 A)
Inhibition
of
acetylcholine
receptors
 
 
 Acetylcholine
is
the
excitatory
neurotransmitter
for
muscle.

If
these
 receptors
were
inhibited
skeletal
muscle
could
not
be
activated
 

 B)
Inhibition
of
sodium
channel
inactivation
 
 
 Opening
of
Sodium
channels
are
what
cause
the
depolarization
of
neurons.

If
 they
were
inhibited
action
potentials
could
not
occur.
 
 C)
Inhibition
of
potassium
channels
 
 
 
 Opening
of
potassium
channels
repolarizes
the
neurons.

If
potassium
 channels
could
not
open
the
neuron
would
never
return
to
its
resting
 membrane
potential.
 
 
 
 D)
Inhibition
of
sodium
channels
in
muscle
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Opening
of
Sodium
channels
are
what
cause
the
depolarization
of
muscle.

If
 they
were
inhibited
action
potentials
could
not
occur
in
the
skeletal
muscle
 and
calcium
would
not
be
released.
 
 E)
Inhibition
of
calcium
channels
in
the
axon
terminal.
 
 
 Calcium
has
to
enter
the
presynaptic
cell
for
the
neurotransmitter
vesicles
to
 bind
to
the
membrane
and
release
neurotransmitter
into
the
synaptic
cleft.
 6) The
diagram
below
shows
a
human
skull,
with
a
jaw
closing
force
produced
 by
the
temporalis
muscle
(Fm)
=
20
N
acting
with
a
moment
arm
(r)
=
2.0
cm.
 
 
 Fm 
 
 
 B1
 
 r
 
 
 B2
 R1
 R2
 
 
 r
=
2
cm




R2
=
8
cm



R1
=
5
cm
 
 
 A) What
is
the
magnitude
of
bite
force
(B1)
that
can
be
produced
between
the
 molars?
(1
point)
 
 
 8N
of
bite
force
can
be
produced
between
the
molars
 Fm × r = G × R Fm = 20 N r = 2.0cm 
 R1 = 5.0cm 20 N × 2.0cm = 5cm × G 40 N • cm =G 5cm G = 8N 
 € 
 p.
9
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
10
 B) What
is
the
magnitude
of
bite
force
(B2)
that
can
be
produced
between
the
 incisors?
(1
point)
 
 The
magnitude
of
the
bite
force
that
can
be
produced
by
the
incisors
is
5N
 Fm × r = G × R Fm = 20 N r = 2.0cm 
 R1 = 8.0cm 20 N × 2.0cm = 8cm × G 40 N • cm =G 8cm G = 5N 
 € C) What
is
the
functional
implication
of
this
difference?
(1
point)
 
 
 
 From
a
functional
perspective
incisors
are
for
cutting
and
tearing
while
 molars
are
for
crushing
food.

In
order
to
crush
food
you
need
to
produce
 more
force
than
to
cut
food.
 D) How
does
the
joint
moment
of
the
incisors
and
the
molars
differ
between
a
 human
and
a
chimpanzee?

What
does
this
difference
mean
from
a
functional
 perspective?
(2
points)

Note:
you
need
to
recall
key
differences
in
a
chimp
 versus
a
human
(the
diagram
above
won’t
provide
the
answer
on
its
own).
 
 Human
molars
have
a
greater
effective
mechanical
advantage
than
 chimpanzees
due
to
the
greater
moment
arm
ratio,
which
means
humans
 need
to
activate
less
muscle
mass
to
produce
the
same
amount
of
bite
force
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 7) Graph
energy
use
versus
time
for
a
100
meter
sprint
and
for
a
mile
run
 (showing
approximate
qualitative
differences
in
the
time
of
the
exercise
 bouts).

Which
one
of
these
events
incurs
a
larger
oxygen
debt
and
why?
(3
 points)


 
 
 
 
 1
point
for
each
graph
–
must
show
energy
use
versus
time
relative
to
each
 other
correctly
(basic
features
of
graphs
only)
 
 ‐0.5
point
if
axes
are
not
labeled
 
 
 
 
 1
point
–
sprint
exercise
will
incur
a
greater
oxygen
debt
because
a
larger
 percentage
of
the
total
energy
needed
is
being
produced
anaerobically
and
 the
byproducts
of
anaerobic
metabolism
will
have
to
be
broken
down
post
 exercise.
 
 
 How
are
energy
demands
met
at
the
onset
of
exercise
in
each
event?
(2
 points)
 
 1
point
for
each
–
ATP,
PCr
or
glycolysis
(need
to
list
2
out
of
three) p.
11
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
12
 
 8) A)

 The
bone
cross‐sections
shown
below
have
the
same
area.

Which
is
bore
 
 resistant
to
bending?

Briefly,
why
is
this
the
case?
(2
points)
 
 1
pt
–
bone
A
will
be
more
resistant
to
bending
 1
pt
–
bone
A
is
more
resistant
to
bending
because
the
more
of
the
bone's
mass
 (or
area)
is
located
away
from
the
center
(or
neutral
axis)
and
towards
the
 outside
where
it
is
more
effective
in
resisting
bending
force,
OR
that
bone
A
has
 a
larger
second
moment
of
area
than
bone
B
 
 
 
 
 B)

Draw
a
stress
versus
strain
curve
for
two
identically
shaped
bones
X
&
Y

 
 (not
the
ones
above):
bone
X
has
60%
mineral
content,
and
bone
Y,
which
 
 comes
from
a
person
with
osteopenia,
and
has
only
a
40%
mineral

 
 content.
(3
points)
 Answer
should
show
a
greater
slop
and
a
greater
strength
(maximum
failure
stress)
 for
bone
X
than
bone
Y.

 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
13
 
 9) 
You
are
hiking
through
the
Amazon
and
you
discover
a
new
species
of
 primate.

When
males
and
females
of
this
primate
species
are
captured
for
a
 zoological
breeding
program,
successful
pregnancies
are
found
to
be
rare
 because
the
pregnant
females
tend
to
develop
gestational
diabetes
and
 hypertension.

What
does
this
tell
you
about
the
structure
of
the
new
 “primate’s
placenta”
and
the
characteristics
of
the
developing
fetus?
(5
 points)
 
 The
new
primate
has
a
hemochorial
placenta
with
chorionic
villi
that
sit
in
 pools
of
maternal
blood.

A
hemochorial
placenta
does
not
have
a
counter
 current
exchange
system
for
nutrients
and
oxygen
hence
the
need
for
 increased
blood
glucose
and
increased
blood
pressure.

The
fetus
probably
 has
a
large
brain
which
is
why
it
needs
an
increased
nutrient
supply.
 10) A) What is the primary structure that regulates heart rate and what two components of the nervous system slow and speed up heart rate by acting on this structure? (2 points) 1 point – SA node speeds up heart rate 0.5 points – the parasympathetic nervous system slows down heart rate (can also say vagus nerve for full credit 0.5 points – the sympathetic nervous system speeds up heart rate B) Draw and label a graph showing the heart’s pacemaker membrane potential versus time and how these two nervous system components can change that potential. (3 points) 3 points – 1 point per line (do not have to show numbers for full credit on the graph but lines all three lines should show a sharp increase in slope at relatively the same membrane threshold potential); -0.5 if axes are unlabeled Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
14
 11)You
enter
one
of
those
survivor‐type
reality
TV
shows
and
are
dropped
off
 somewhere
in
the
desert
with
3
other
contestants.
 A) Using
the
Heat
Balance
Equation,
explain
what
factors
you
would
try
to
 increase
or
decrease
to
keep
from
overheating.
(4
points)
 
 
 Need
four
of
the
following
answers
 
 
 1
pt
–
you
would
try
to
increase
evaporation
to
lose
heat
 
 
 1
pt
–
you
would
try
to
increase
conduction
to
lose
heat
 
 
 1
pt
–
you
would
try
to
increase
convection
to
lose
heat
 
 
 1
pt
–
you
would
be
less
active
to
reduce
metabolic
heat
gain
 
 
 1
pt
–
you
would
try
to
decrease
heat
gain
from
radiation
(the
sun)
 
 
 
 
 B)

 One
of
the
other
contestants
is
your
height
but
weighs
about
200
lbs

 
 more
than
you.

How
would
you
expect
his
sweating
ability
(measured
by

 
 number
of
sweat
glands)
to
scale
with
size
as
compared
to
yours
(e.g.

 
 what
is
your
isometric
sweat
scaling
prediction)?
(1
point)
 # gland ∝ area area ∝ l 2 
 mass ∝ l 3 # gland ∝ M b 2/3 
 C)
 What
part
of
your
brain
would
sense
if
you
were
overheating?
(1
point)

 
 
 
 
 
 D)
 If
you
were
overheating
and
dehydrated,
name
the
part
of
your
brain
and

 
 the
hormone
it
would
produce
to
reduce
your
urine
output
and

 
 
 thereby
conserve
water?
(2
points)
 
 
 0.5
points
–
hypothalamus
would
produce

 
 
 0.5
points
ADH
to
conserve
water
 
 
 
 E)
 You
win
a
survivor
challenge
and
you
can
choose
between
a
three
pound

 
 bag
of
apples
or
a
three
pound
bag
of
sausage,
which
one
do
you
choose

 
 and
why?
(2
points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1
pt
‐
hypothalamus
 € There
are
multiple
correct
answers
here
(see
below)
to
get
full
credit

 they
have
to
pick
one
and
their
justification
needs
to
be
physiologically

 correct.
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 You
would
pick
the
bag
of
sausage
due
to
the
increased
calorie

 content.
 
 
 p.
15
 You
would
pick
the
apples
due
to
the
increased
water
content.
 12)While
studying
for
your
LS2
exam
in
a
coffee
shop,
you
overhear
someone
 discussing
her
grandfather’s
heart
condition.

The
grandfather
suffers
from
 atherosclerosis
of
the
coronary
arteries.
 
 
 A)

 How
does
atherosclerosis
affect
the
flow
of
blood
through
the
arteries

 
 and
the
pressure
in
the
arteries?
(1
point)

 
 0.5
points
arthrosclerosis
increases
the
resistance
to
flow

 
 0.5
points
atherosclerosis
increases
the
pressure
in
the
coronary
arteries
 

 B)
 Why
does
atherosclerosis
affect
flow
and
pressure?
(1
point)
 
 
 0.5
points
arthersclerosis
affects
the
resistance
to
flow
by
decreasing
the
 diameter
of
the
vessels
 
 
 
 0.5
points
artherosclerosis

increases
the
pressure
in
the
coronary
arteries
 by
decreasing
the
elasticity
of
the
artery
wall
and
eliminating
the
expansion
 of
the
wall
that
occurs
during
systole
 
 
 
 
 C)
 
 
 
 This
person’s
grandfather
also
recently
survived
a
heart
attack,
likely

 caused
by
the
lack
of
oxygenated
blood
to
the
cardiac
muscle,
which

 resulted
in
damage
to
large
portions
of
his
heart
muscle.
Does
a
damaged

 heart
do
more
or
less
work
than
a
healthy
heart
and
why?
(2
points)
 
 
 1
point
–
a
damaged
heart
does
more
work
than
a
healthy
heart
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1
point
–
the
remaining
myofibrils
have
to
shorten
a
larger
distance
to

 cause
the
heart
to
contract
the
same
amount
(or
do
we
want
them
to

 answer
in
terms
of
the
pressure?)
 
 
 
 
 Now
this
poor
gentleman
suffers
from
episodes
of
rapid
heart
rate

 (tachycardia).
Why
would
you
expect
this
if
you
knew
he
had
a
 reduced
stroke
volume?
What
specific
regulatory
input
should
be
 affecting
the
sinoatrial
node
to
slow
down
his
heart
rate?
This
specific
 regulatory
input
is
a
part
of
what
branch
of
what
system?
(3
points)
 D) 
 
 1
point
to
maintain
the
same
cardiac
output
with
a
smaller
stroke
volume
 you
must
increase
heart
rate
since
CO=HRxSV
 
 
 1
point
the
parasympathetic
nervous
system
affects
the
heart
at
the
SA
 node
to
slow
down
heart
rate
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 
 
 
 p.
16
 1
point
the
parasympathetic
nervous
system
is
part
of
the
autonomic
 nervous
system
(I
would
also
give
them
credit
for
peripheral
nervous
 system)
 
 
 
 
 E)
 
 
 
 What
is
the
relative
location
(with
regards
to
the
spinal
cord
and
heart)
of
 the
ganglion
of
the
nerve
that
would
accelerate
heart
rate
under
normal

 fight‐or‐flight
conditions?

What
is
the
preganglionic
neurotransmitter?


 What
is
the
postganglionic
neurotransmitter?
(3
points)
 
 
 
 
 1
point
–
the
ganglion
for
the
sympathetic
nervous
system
are
located

 next
to
the
spinal
cord
and
would
accelerate
the
heart
rate
 
 
 1
point
–
preganglionic
neurotransmitter
is
acetylcholine
(Ach)
 
 
 
 
 1
point
–
postganglionic
neurotransmitter
is
norepinephrine

 (epinephrine
or
adrenalin
also
okay)
 
 13)Halle
Berry
has
Type
1
diabetes,
which
means
she
does
not
naturally
produce
 enough
insulin
to
control
her
blood
sugar
levels.

Insulin
helps
to
move
sugar
 from
the
bloodstream
into
cells.
 
 A)
 What
organ
is
responsible
for
producing
insulin?
(1
point)
 
 
 
 
 
 B)
 We
learned
that
insulin‐enabled
glucose
uptake
is
responsible
for
all

 
 anabolic
processes.

Name
the
three
principle
locations
in
the
body
(e.g.

 
 what
types
of
cells)
where
the
breakdown
of
glucose
occurs.
(3
points)
 
 
 One
point
for
each:
 
 
 Muscle
 
 
 Liver
 
 
 Brain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 C)
 
 
 
 
 
 Once
a
steady
supply
of
glucose
is
in
the
cells,
metabolism
progresses

 normally
in
Type
1
diabetics.

However,
if
there
is
not
a
steady
supply
of

 glucose,
a
diabetic
may
start
to
burn
fat
for
energy
and
could
find

 
 themselves
in
a
dangerous
metabolic
condition
known
as
diabetic

 
 ketoacidosis
(DKA).
In
what
location
within
the
cells
of
the
liver
would

 the
diabetic
be
producing
ketones
from
fat
metabolism?

(1
point)
 
 
 1
point
–
cytoplasm
 
 
 1
point
‐
pancreas
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
17
 
 
 
 
 
 
 D)
 Halle
decides
to
go
for
a
run
to
stay
in
shape
for
her
next
movie.

She
has

 
 eaten
and
taken
her
insulin
properly,
to
be
functioning
on
a
healthy,

 
 normal
metabolic
level.

Draw
a
well‐labeled
graph
that
shows
how
her

 
 energy
source
usage
changes
over
time
as
she
begins
her
run.
(3
points)
 
 
 0.75
points
for
each
energy
source
drawn
and
labeled
correctly.


 
 
 –
0.5
points
if
axes
not
labeled
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 1
point
–
cortisol
 
 
 
 E)
 What
is
the
key
hormone
related
to
energy
use
that
will
be
increased
by

 
 exercise
and
what
effect
does
this
hormone
have
on
insulin?
(2
points)
 
 1
point
–
cortisol
opposes
the
action
of
insulin
 14)Consider
a
rabbit
about
to
perform
a
jump.


 A) What
feature
of
the
rabbit’s
motor
nerve
axon
allows
impulses
to
be
 rapidly
conducted
from
the
CNS
to
the
muscle
fiber?

(1
point)
 
 1
point
–
myelin
(sheath
&
nodes
of
Ranvier)
 B) Describe
the
role
of
ATP
and
calcium
in
facilitating
muscle
contraction.

(4
 points)

 
 1
point
ATP
powers
the
movement
of
the
myosin
head
 
 1
point
ATP
breaks
the
myosin‐actin
bond
(or
myosing
crossbridge

 
 detachment
from
actin
 
 2
points
calcium
binds
to
troponin
(causing
a
conformational
change
in

 
 tropomyosin),
which
opens
up
the
myosin
binding
site
on
actin
allowing

 
 myosin
to
form
a
crossbridge
with
actin.

Portion
in
parenthesis
not

 
 necessary
for
full
credit.

They
need
to
know
that
calcium
binds
to

 
 
 troponin
and
opens
the
binding
sites
on
actin.
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 p.
18
 C) Adult
rabbits
have
a
relatively
shorter
calcaneus
than
young
rabbits.

 What
are
two
implications
of
this
observation
for
the
performance
of
the
 adult
rabbit
relative
to
the
young
rabbit?

(4
points)
 
 2
points
–
since
adult
rabbits
have
a
smaller
gastrocnemius
moment
arm

 
 (
r
value),
they
will
have
a
larger
angular
displacement
and
higher


 
 velocity
of
displacement
at
the
ankle
for
a
given
amount
of
muscle


 
 shortening.
 

 
 2
points
–
adult
rabbits
have
to
activate
relatively
more
(a
greater

 
 
 volume)
muscle,
or
more
muscle
for
their
weight,
to

produce
an

 
 
 equivalent
torque
(or
moment)
at
the
ankle
joint
as
a
juvenile
rabbit
 D) What
muscle
fiber
type
is
particularly
important
during
jumping?
(1
 point)
 
 1
point
–
fast
glycolytic
 15)Lawrence
of
Arabia
is
holding
a
match
to
his
finger
without
flinching.


 
 A)
 Describe
the
route
by
which
the
sensory
signal
travels
from
his
finger
to

 
 
 his
neocortex.

(4
points)
 
 
 0.5
points
each
 
 
 stimulus

(pain)
receptor

Sensory
or
afferent
nerve

dorsal
root

 
 
 (ganglion)

spinal
cord

brainstem

thalamus

neocortex
cortex
of
 
 
 the
brain
 
 
 B)
 What
general
region
of
the
neocortex
receives
and
confers
Lawrence’s

 
 
 awareness
of
the
heat
from
the
match?
(1
point)

 
 
 1
point
–
somatosensory
cortex
 
 
 C)
 How
is
the
intensity
of
the
sensory
signal
coded
for
as
the
finger
moves

 
 
 into
the
flame?

(2

points)
 
 
 2.0
point
‐
increased
frequency
of
action
potentials
 


 
 
 D)
 Amazingly
he
does
not
retract
his
finger
for
several
seconds!!
How
can
he

 
 
 keep
his
finger
over
the
flame
for
several
seconds
without
withdrawing

 
 
 his
finger
due
to
the
pain?
(3
points)
 


 
 
 Higher
brain
centers
are
overriding
the
local
reflex
system.

We
should

 
 
 accept
any
answer
that
indicates
that
some
kind
of
descending
input
from
 
 
 higher
brain
centers
overrides
the
reflex.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
19
 16)Energetic
cost
is
a
major
source
of
evolutionary
pressure
and
adaptation
in
 vertebrates.

List
five
adaptations
that
have
been
discussed
in
Life
Sciences
2
 that
have
enabled
organisms
to
decrease
the
energetic
cost
of
a
particular
 activity
or
to
make
a
particular
activity
more
efficient.

For
each
example
 discuss
how
this
adaptation
leads
to
greater
efficiency
or
a
lower
energetic
 cost.

(10
points)
 
 I
will
grade
this
one.

There
are
to
many
answers
for
me
to
easily
key
this
 question
out.
 
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2012 for the course LS 2 taught by Professor Andrewa.biewener,petert.ellison,anddaniele.lieberman during the Fall '10 term at Harvard.

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