Final Exam 2010 Key

Final Exam 2010 Key - Life Sciences 2 Midterm #3 The final...

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Unformatted text preview: Life Sciences 2 Midterm #3 The final exam has two sections. The first section, labeled midterm #3, is essentially a third midterm covering the last third of the course. It is formatted identically to the first two midterms and consists of ten two point questions and six five point questions. The second half of the exam, labeled final exam, is the cumulative portion of the test and has questions that are more synthetic in nature. Question # Points #1 Harry #2 Stephen #3 Sashka #4 Harry #5 Stephen #6 Neil K #7 Sashka #8 Maria #9 Neil K #10 Maria #11 Jose #12 Carolyn #13 Breda #14 Ted #15 Sameer #16 Neil R Total 
 
 1
 Two
Point
Questions

 1) List
two
specific
types
of
antibodies
and
their
primary
function.
(2
points)
 
 1
point
each
(only
have
to
have
2)
for:
 
 IgG
–
facilitates
the
binding
of
macrophages
and
complement
fixation
 
 IgM
–
agglutinate
antigen‐antibody
complexes
helping
to
localize
infection
 
 IgA
–
forms
antibody
complexes,
activates
macrophages
and
triggers
 
 complement
fixation
 
 IgE
–
binds
to
mast
cells
and
causes
them
to
release
histamine
and
to
activate
 
 eosinophils
 
 2) What
affect
does
ADH
(vasopressin)
have
on
nephron
function?
(2
points)
 
 ADH
acts
on
the
medullary
collecting
duct,
and
causes
it
to
become
more
permeable
 to
water.

It
increases
water
resorption
and
makes
urine
more
concentrated
 
 3) What
is
the
functional
role
of
the
vasa
recta
in
the
kidney?
(2
points)
 
 The
vasa
recta
provides
nutrients
and
eliminates
wastes
in
the
medulla
of
the
 kidney
while
helping
to
maintain
the
concentration
gradient
present
in
the
medulla.
 
 4) What
are
the
developmental
fates
of
the
Wolffian
and
the
Mullerian
ducts
in
males
 and
females
respectively?
(2
points)
 
 0.5
points
each
 The
Wolffian
ducts
in
males
form
the
epididymis
and
the
vas
deferens.


 In
females
the
Wolffian
ducts
degenerate.


 In
females
the
Mullerian
ducts
form
the
fallopian
tubes
and
the
uterus.
 In
males
the
Mullerian
ducts
are
lost.
 
 5) What
is
the
principal
hormone
produced
by
the
corpus
luteum
and
what
is
its
 function?
(2
points)
 
 1
point
–
progesterone
 1
point
–
maintain
the
endometrium
or
to
prevent
the
endometrium
from
being
 shed/lost
 
 6) How
is
the
dominant
follicle
selected
in
each
menstrual
cycle?
(2
points)
 
 The
dominant
follicle
is
the
follicle
that
matures/grows
the
fastest
and
produces
the
 most
inhibin
to
prevent
the
other
follicles
from
growing.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 2
 
 7) If
we
were
to
strap
a
5kg.
weight
to
this
leg
and
measure
the
cost
of
the
swing
phase,
 at
what
point
(A,
B,
or
C)
should
we
place
this
weight
to
keep
cost
as
low
as
 possible?
(1
point)


 
 A
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 A
 
 
 
B
 
 
 C
 
 D
 What
is
the
physical
principle
that
explains
why
costs
vary?
(1
point)
 The
moment
of
inertia
increases
as
you
travel
further
away
from
the
center
of
mass
so
the
 farther
away
you
are
from
the
center
of
mass
the
greater
the
force
a
given
mass
applies
 
 8) Why
does
a
human
generate
higher
peak
vertical
ground
reaction
force
when
 running
faster
than
when
running
slower?
(2
points)
 
 The
time
of
contact
is
shorter
when
running
faster
and
since
the
vertical
ground
 reaction
force
has
to
be
equal
to
body
weight
it
must
be
greater
at
faster
speeds.
 
 9) Explain
how
the
ratio
r/R
is
related
to
muscle
force
production
versus
the
speed
of
 angular
rotation
at
a
given
joint.
(2
points)
 
 A
small
ratio
of
r/R
means
the
muscle
produces
a
small
force
at
high
speeds.

A
large
 ratio
of
r/R
means
the
muscle
produces
large
forces
at
slower
speeds.
 
 10)Explain
why
when
women
train
for
marathons
they
often
stop
ovulating,
however
 men
do
not
stop
sperm
production.

(2
points)
 
 In
women
reproduction
is
energetically
limited
while
in
men
it
is
not
(I
am
 forgetting
how
Peter
worded
this
specifically)
 
 3
 
 Five
Point
Questions

 11)Label
the
structures
listed
below
on
the
eye
using
the
corresponding
letter
(do
NOT
 label
them
with
the
words,
or
you
will
get
no
credit).
(5
points)
 a) Anterior
Chamber
 h) Retina
 b) Choroid
 i) Pupil
 c) Cornea
 j) Sclera
 d) Fovea
Centralis
 k) Vitreous
Humor
 e) Iris
 
 f) Lens
 
 g) Optic
Nerve
 
 
 4
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
5
 
 
 12)Graph
the
amount
of
IgG
in
plasma
in
response
to
a
pathogen.

To
the
graph
add
a
 line
representing
the
amount
of
IgG
in
plasma
in
response
to
a
second
exposure
to
 the
same
antigen.
(3
points)
 The
second
exposure
response
should
be
larger,
faster
and
last
longer
than
the
first
 exposure.
 
 What
cells
are
responsible
for
producing
antibodies
in
each
of
these
responses?
(2
 points)
 
 1
point
–
first
exposure
–
plasma
cells
 1
point
–
second
exposure
–
memory
B‐cells
 
 
 
 
 
 5
 
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
6
 
 
 13)On
the
diagram
below
label
the
proximal
convoluted
tubule,
the
distal
convoluted
 tubule,
the
loop
of
Henle,
Bowmans
capsule
and
the
collecting
duct.

Under
normal
 water
balance
conditions
indicate
whether
the
osmolarity
of
the
fluid
in
each
of
 these
sections
is
higher,
lower
or
the
same
as
blood
plasma
(300
mOsm).
(5
points)
 
 For
the
collecting
duct
you
should
accept
the
same
osmolarity
or
higher
depending
 on
whether
the
arrow
is
near
the
top
of
the
collecting
duct
or
the
bottom.
 
 
 
 
 6
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
7
 
 
 14)Draw
a
graph
describing
the
relationship
between
metabolic
rate
and
environmental
 temperature
for
a
mammal.

Include
labels
for
the
lower
critical
temperture
(LCT),
the
 upper
critical
temperature
(UCT)
and
the
thermoneutral
zone
(TNZ).
(3
points)

 
 
 
 If
an
animal
has
more
insulation
how
does
this
affect
the
shape
of
the
curve
and
why?
(2
 points)
 
 If
an
animal
has
more
insulation
he
has
a
lower
conductance.

This
decreases
the
 slope
of
the
line
below
the
LCT,
decreases
the
LCT
and
decreases
the
UCT.
 
 
 
 7
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
8
 
 15)Both
viral
and
bacterial
infections
stimulate
helper
T
cells.

For
each
type
of
infection,
 indicate:
 A. What
kind
of
cell
might
present
the
antigen?
(1
point)
 
 Viral
–
any
infected
cell
in
the
body
 Bacterial
–
Antigen
Presenting
Cells
(Macrophages,
Dendritic
Cells,
B‐cells)
 
 B. What
kind
of
MHC
protein
is
involved
in
antigen
presentation?
(1
point)
 
 Viral
–
MHC
I
 Bacterial
–
MHC
II
 
 C. What
kind
of
helper
T
cell
is
stimulated
by
antigen
presentation?
(1
point)
 
 Viral
–
Cytotoxic
T‐cells
 Bacterial
–
Helper
T‐cells
 
 D. What
are
the
major
consequences
of
antigen
presentation?
(2
points)
 
 Viral
–
The
virus
infected
cell
is
destroyed
via
cytotoxic
T‐cells
using
perforin.
 Bacterial
–
The
bacteria
are
marked
for
destruction
by
macrophages
or
 eliminated/localized
with
antibodies
 
 8
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
9
 
 
 16) Based on the figure below answer the following questions: A) Identify the four cell types/structures indicated on the figure below. (1 point) a) theca cells, b) basement membrane, c) granulosa layer, d) oocyte B) What are the principal hormones produced by (a) and (c) respectively? (1 point) a) androgens c) estrogen C) What are the principal stimulating hormones for (a) & (b) respectively? (1 point) a) LH b) FSH D) What cell types correspond to (a) & (c) in the opposite sex? (1 point) a) Leydig cells c) Sertoli cells E) What stage of development is depicted in the figure? (1 point) Primary follicle 
 9
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 p.
10
 Life Sciences 2 Final Exam PART 2 – MORE SYNTHETIC QUESTIONS Question # Points #1 Sara #2 Dan #3 Jen #4 Stephen #5 Ted #6 Noor #7 Noor #8 Brooke #9 Brooke Total 
 
 10
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
11
 
 1) In
Harry
Potter
and
the
Deathly
Hallows
Part
I,
Harry
dives
into
an
icy
pond
to
 recover
the
sword
of
Gryffindor.

While
underwater,
the
cursed
locket
around
his
 neck
begins
to
choke
him
and
keep
him
underwater,
preventing
him
from
surfacing
 to
breathe.
(5
points)
 
 A) Harry’s
cardiac
output
when
he
starts
to
struggle
goes
up.

Which
two
 physiological
variables
set
cardiac
output?
(1
point)
 
 
 Heart
Rate
and
Stroke
Volume
 
 B) As
Harry
starts
to
panic
which
portion
of
the
autonomic
nervous
system
kicks
in
 and
what
hormone
is
released?
(1
point)
 
 
 Sympathetic
nervous
system
releases
epinephrine
 
 C) As
he
struggles
to
swim
to
the
surface
are
the
first
two
sources
of
energy
being
 used
by
his
skeletal
muscles?
(1
point)
 
 
 ATP
and
PCr
 
 D) As
his
body
temperature
drops
(due
to
the
cold
water)
list
two
ways
his
body
 reacts
to
try
to
conserve
heat.
(2
points)
 
 Vasoconstriction
and
shunting
blood
to
the
core
of
the
body
or
away
from
the
 
 periphery.
 
 2) You
are
jogging
up
Mount
Washington
at
noon
and
you
see
a
Black
Bear.

 A) What
sensory
cells/receptors
in
your
eye
are
primarily
responsible
for
detecting
 its
image?
(1
point)
 
 Cones
in
the
retina
 
 B)
What
nerve
transmits
this
information
to
the
brain?

(1
point)
 

 Optic
nerve
 
 C)
What
feature
of
human
vision
allows
precise
judgement
of
the
distance
of
the
 
 predator?
(1
point)
 

 Stereoscopic
vision
 
 D)
What
division
of
the
autonomic
nervous
system
is
likely
to
become

active
upon
 
 detecting
the
bear,
and
what
are
three
effects
of
this
activity?
(2
points)
 

 Sympathetic
Nervous
System,
Increase
heart
rate,
respiratory
rate,
dilate

 

 pupils,
vasodilation
to
skeletal
muscles,
pilioerection
 3) A)
What
dimensional
measurement
determines
the
maximum
force
of
a
muscle’s
 contraction?
(1
point)
 
 Cross
–
sectional
area
 
 B)
Whydoes
the
dimensional
measurement
above
determine
the
maximum
force
 
 of
the
muscle’s
contraction?
(1
point)
 

 It
is
a
measure
of
the
number
of
sarcomeres
in
parallel
and
the
more

 
 

 sarcomeres
working
in
parallel
the
greater
the
force
produced.
 
 
 11
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
12
 
 
 
 
 C) What
is
the
slope
of
the
log/log
plot
expected
under
isometry
if
this
 measurement
is
plotted
on
the
y‐axis
against
body
mass?
(1
point)
 
 2/3
 
 
 D)
If
the
slope
is
¾
in
one
group
of
organisms,
and
assuming
isometry
is
the
 
 ‘normal’
condition,
what
sort
of
allometry
does
this
group
exhibit?

(1
point)
 

 Positive
allometry
 
 E)
Other
than
muscle
force
what
variable
affects
the
torque
produced
at
the
joint?
 
 (1
point)
 

 Muscle
moment
arm
 4) Humans
are
capable
of
surviving
in
extreme
environmental
conditions.

For
each
of
 the
environmental
conditions
listed
below
describe
an
anatomical
or
physiological
 adaptation
that
allows
humans
to
function
within
the
environment.
(5
points)
 
 This
is
not
a
question
I
can
key
out
easily
so
I
will
just
give
some
examples.

There
 are
other
answers
that
are
correct.
 
 A) High
altitude
 Increased
EPO
–
increases
oxygen
carrying
capacity
of
blood,
Increased
respiratory
 rate
–
increases
oxygen
to
the
tissues,
Bohr
effect
for
hemoglobin
–
promotes
 oxygen
unloading
at
the
tissues
 
 B) Extreme
Cold
 Increased
production
of
thyroxine
which
increases
basal
metabolic
rate,
shivering,
 constriction
of
peripheral
surface
capilaries
 
 C) Food
Shortage
or
Famine
 
 
 
 
 
 Decrease
in
reproductive
capacity
allowing
humans
to
have
a
greater
likelihood
of
 having
a
child
when
conditions
are
more
favorable;
Cortisol
production
–
has
anti‐ insulin
affects,
decreased
metabolic
rate,
utilization
of
fat
stores,
increased
 utilization
of
ketone
bodies, 12
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 
 
 p.
13
 5) On
the
graph
below
add
lines
showing
the
pressure
in
the
pulmonary
artery
and
the
 pressure
in
the
right
ventricle
and
the
volume
in
the
right
ventricle
during
the
 cardiac
cycle.

(3
points)

During
which
phase(s)
in
the
diagram
below
is
the
heart
1
 point
–
for
each
correctly
drawn
line
(red
pressure
in
the
right
ventricle,
light
purple
 is
pressure
in
the
pulmonary
artery
and
orange
is
volume
in
the
right
ventricle);
1
 point
each
–
the
heart
is
isovolumentric
during
phases
2
and
4
of
the
cardiac
cycle
 
 
 
 13
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
14
 
 6) List
five
anatomical
or
physiological
features
that
make
humans
unique
among
 vertebrates.

Choose
two
of
these
features
and
explain
their
functional
significance.
 (10
points)
 
 Here
are
some
examples
Professor
Lieberman
came
up
with
–
there
may
be
more
 correct
answers
 
 Larger
brain
relative
to
body
mass;
external
nose;
chin;
no
snout/retracted
face;
 short,
vertical
neck;
white,
visible
sclera;
no
fur;
sweat;
tailless,
striding
bipeds;
 lumbar
curve
to
spine;
big
breasts/penis
relative
to
body
size;
concealed
estrous
 
 7) Today,
about
2/3rds
of
American
adults
are
either
overweight
or
obese,
but
obesity
 was
rare
untilrecently
in
human
evolution.

Using
principles
you
have
learned
in
 this
class,
what
are
the
major
proximate
(mechanistic)
causes
of
this
problem,
and
 what
might
be
their
ultimate
(evolutionary)
causes?

How
might
these
causes
be
 specific
to
humans?
(5
points)."
 Proximate
causes
–
eat
too
much
and
don’t
exercise
enough
 
 Ultimate
cause
–
we
have
evolved
for
reproductive
success
not
physical
health;
in
 addition
our
ancestors
went
through
periods
of
abundant
food
(so
they
stored
it
as
fat)
 and
no
food
(so
they
burned
fat
previously
stored)
 
 These
causes
are
specific
to
humans
since
we
have
modernized
many
aspects
of
our
 society
and
we
are
no
longer
a
“hunter‐gatherer”
society.

May
have
evolved
to
have
 relatively
high
energy
expenditure
in
activity,
as
suggested
by
adaptations
for
running
 and
walking,
loss
of
body
hair,
etc.

May
have
evolved
to
cope
with
low
or
unpredictable
 energy
intake,
as
suggested
by
mechanisms
of
glucose
sparing
during
famine,
relatively
 high
capacity
for
fat
storage.
 .
 8) The
transition
from
water
to
land
in
vertebrate
evolution
involved
acquiring
 adaptations
to
a
terrestrial
environment
that
offers
a
substantially
less
dense
and
 viscous
medium
(air)
and
greatly
increased
gravitational
loads.

Many
changes
 occurred
in
the
cardiovascular,
respiratory,
osmoregulatory,
and
musculoskeletal
 systems
during
this
transition
in
vertebrate
evolution.


Pick
two
of
these
 physiological
systems
and
discuss
some
of
the
changes
that
might
have
been
 necessary
as
animals
moved
from
an
aquatic
to
a
terrestrial
environment
in
 evolution.

(5
points)
 This
is
not
a
question
I
can
key
out
easily.
 
 9) At
several
points
in
LS2
we
have
mentioned
the
idea
that
organisms
might
not
be
 optimally
designed,
but
instead
are
constrained
by
their
evolutionary
history.

We
 have
mentioned
in
particular
several
aspects
of
development
and
adult
anatomy
 
 14
 Name
and
HUID
 
 
 p.
15
 
 that
reflect
past
evolutionary
history.

Describe
two
such
examples
in
the
human
 body
(2.5
points
each)
and
explain
for
each
which
structures
you
believe
show
 evidence
of
our
evolutionary
history.


 This
is
not
a
question
I
can
key
out
easily.
 
 
 15
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2012 for the course LS 2 taught by Professor Andrewa.biewener,petert.ellison,anddaniele.lieberman during the Fall '10 term at Harvard.

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