Lect21brain1

Lect21brain1 - Life Sciences 2 October 25, 2010 The Brain,...

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Life Sciences 2 October 25, 2010 The Brain, Part 1: MODULES Reading: Chapter 17 Professor Daniel E. Lieberman Office hours Tuesday 1-2 Peabody 53 and by appointment (really) : danlieb@fas.harvard.edu
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Human brains are especially big and costly 1350 gm 400 gm 300-400 kcal/day 100-130 kcal/day Mass Cost 140 gm 40-60 kcal/day Ovis aries
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How do we make sense of something as complex as the brain? Modules Integration
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Hierarchy of modules Base pairs Genes Proteins Cells Tissues Organs Systems Bodies
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TODAY: Development Evolution Structural modules WEDNESDAY: Functional modules Feeding the brain Draining the brain Keeping it cool (or warm) Protecting the brain
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The brain is the core of the Central Nervous System 100 billion neurons Axons heavily myelinated (white matter) Cell bodies (grey matter) With 1,000s of dendrites 1x10 13 connections!
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Glial (supporting) cells At least as numerous as neurons ... more than just neurons
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Glial cell types (just a few) Microglia = immune cells (macrophages) Astrocytes -- regulate other aspects of neuron’s environment (including energy) Oligodendrocytes - coat CNS neurons in myelin (Schwann cells coat PNS neurons) Ependymal cells = secrete cerebrosinal fluid (CSF)
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Remember the neural tube ? To understand brain structure, it helps to understand its growth and evolution The brain is the folded cranial end of the neural tube (plate of ectoderm following gastrulation) The brain is a complex, highly folded tube How do neurons (and glia) form structures of the brain?
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Brain grows as neurons near center of tube proliferate and migrate outwards Special cells (radial glia) help this happen
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Modules begin to form as the brain folds and flexes 3 week old embryo Neural tube first divides into segments (modules), expands, and folds
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Divisions of the Brain (three different ways to divide it up) EVOLUTI ON Neocortex (cerebrum) Paleocortex (olfactory and limbic systems) Non-cortical brain and cerebellum DEVELOPMENT Prosencephalon Telencephalon (cerebrum) Diencephalon (eyes, pituitary, hypothalamus, thalamus, epiphysis) Mesencephalon Rhombencephalon Metencephalon (pons, cerebellum) Myelencephalon (medulla) ANATOMY Forebrain – Cerebrum – Thalamus – Hypothalamus Midbrain Hindbrain – Pons – Medulla – Cerebellum
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The basic initial divisions of the brain: Forebrain (prosencephalon) Midbrain (mesencephalon) Hindbrain (rhombencephalon) 3 week old embryo
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Lect21brain1 - Life Sciences 2 October 25, 2010 The Brain,...

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