LS2 Lect11

LS2 Lect11 - ENERGY METABOLISM I CELLULAR METABOLISM...

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Unformatted text preview: ENERGY METABOLISM I CELLULAR METABOLISM Ch. 13, pp. 416 ­439 Prof. Peter Ellison, office hours M 2 ­3 or by appt. ENERGY METABOLISM I CELLULAR METABOLISM OUTLINE: CABBOHYDRATE METABOLISM •  GLYCOLYSIS •  KREB’S CYCLE •  OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION LIMITING FACTORS Ch. 13, pp. 416 ­439 Prof. Peter Ellison, office hours M 2 ­3 or by appt. METABOLISM CATABOLISM ANABOLISM STORAGE ENERGY CARBOHYDRATE + O2 ΔE CO2 + H2O TIME CARBOHYDRATE + O2 ΔE ENERGY ΔE ATP ΔE ΔE ΔE ΔE ΔE ΔE CO2 + H2O TIME ATP ADP  ­ 7,300 cal/mol + 7,300 cal/mol Pi NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE (NAD) NAD+ OXIDIZED +H2 REDUCED  ­H2 NADH + H+  ­ 0.32 volt “reducing poten_al” “electromo_ve poten_al” UNITS OF ENERGY 1 kcal = 4,180 J ~ 4,000 J 1 kJ = 239 cal ~ 250 cal Faraday’s constant = 96.485 kcal/volt/mol e ­ ~ 100 kcal/volt/mol e ­ 1 “dietary calorie” = 1 kcal ~ 4 kJ 1 BTU = 1,055 J ~ 250 cal ~ ¼ kcal + 23 O2 PALMITIC ACID CH3 – (CH2)14  ­ COOH + 130 (ADP + Pi) 16 CO2 16 H2O 2,340 kcal/mol HEAT Approximately 40% of the released energy is captured in ATP 16 CO2 16 H2O 130 ATP 1,384 kcal/mol HEAT ASIDE: NOTE THAT YOU GET ~ 10 kcal HEAT PER MOL ATP. 1 MOL ATP ~ 7 kcal 7/17 = 41% CH3 – (CH2)14  ­ COOH + 130 (ADP + Pi) 16 CO2 16 H2O 130 ATP 1,384 kcal/mol HEAT C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 38 (ADP + Pi) 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 38 ATP + 409 kcal HEAT But not all at once: GLYCOLYSIS GLUCOSE KREB’S CYCLE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION GLYCOLYSIS KREB’S CYCLE ANAEROBIC GLUCOSE TO PYRUVATE 2 ATP PER GLUCOSE AEROBIC (INDIRECTLY) GENERATES CO2, REDUCED SUBSTRATES (NADH), AND 2 ATP PER GLUCOSE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN AEROBIC (DIRECTLY) GENERATES H2O (AND HEAT) 34 ATP PER GLUCOSE GLYCOLYSIS KREB’S CYCLE CYTOPLASM MATRIX TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN INNER MEMBRANE GLYCOLYSIS ATP ADP ATP ADP 2 ADP 2ATP 2 ADP GLUCOSE GLUCOSE ­6 ­P FRUCTOSE ­1,6 ­BIS ­P 2 GLYCERALDEHYDE ­3 ­P 2 NAD+ 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 ATP NET 2 ATP 2 PYRUVATE ACTIVATION: REGULATORY STEPS GLYCOLYSIS •  LOCALIZED IN CELL CYTOPLASM •  ANAEROBIC •  REGULATED BY CELLULAR ATP/ADP •  GENERATES 2 PYRUVATE PER GLUCOSE •  YIELDS 2 ATP AND 2 NADH PER GLUCOSE KREB’S CYCLE CO2 PYRUVATE ACETYL CoA OXALOACETATE NAD+ NADH + H+ CITRATE NADH + H+ ISOCITRATE NAD+ MALATE CO2 NAD+ ATP FUMARATE ADP FADH2 FAD SUCCINATE GTP GDP NADH + H+ α-KETOGLUTARATE CO2 NAD+ SUCCINYL CoA NADH + H+ PYRUVATE ACETATE OXALOACETATE + ACETYL ­CoA CITRATE + KREB’S CYCLE CO2 PYRUVATE ACETYL CoA OXALOACETATE NAD+ NADH + H+ CITRATE NADH + H+ ISOCITRATE NAD+ MALATE CO2 NAD+ ATP FUMARATE ADP FADH2 FAD SUCCINATE GTP GDP NADH + H+ α-KETOGLUTARATE CO2 NAD+ SUCCINYL CoA NADH + H+ KREB’S CYCLE •  LOCALIZED IN MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX •  AEROBIC (INDIRECTLY) •  REGULATED BY NADH AND ADP •  GENERATES CO2 •  YIELDS 4 NADH + H+, 1 FADH, AND 1 ATP PER PYRUVATE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION ADP + Pi NADH + H+ FAD FAD ADP + Pi ADP + Pi H2O FADH2 CoQ Cyt b Cyt c1 Cyt c Cyt a Cyt a3 NAD+ ½ O2 ATP ATP ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN ATP OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION •  LOCALIZED ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL INNER MEMBRANE •  REGULATED BY O2 •  GENERATES H2O AND OXIDIZED SUBSTRATES •  YIELDS 3 ATP PER NADH, 2 PER FADH2 GLYCOGEN, OTHER CARBS 1 ­6 BRANCH 1 ­4 LINK GLUCOSE LIVER STAINED FOR GLYCOGEN GLYCOGEN GLYCOGEN, OTHER CARBS AMINO ACIDS GLYCOGEN, OTHER CARBS GYCEROL GLUCOSE LIVER FATTY ACIDS AMINO ACIDS KETONE BODIES 2ATP GLYCOLYSIS 2 PYRUVATE 2 NADH KREB’S CYCLE 2 ATP 8 NADH + 2 FADH2 OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION 34 ATP 2ATP GLYCOLYSIS ? 2 NADH X ? X 2 PYRUVATE KREB’S CYCLE 8 NADH + 2 FADH2 OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION 2 ATP INSUFFICIENT O2 X GLYCOLYSIS ATP ADP ATP ADP 2 ADP 2ATP 2 ADP GLUCOSE REGULATORY STEPS GLUCOSE ­6 ­P FRUCTOSE ­1,6 ­BIS ­P 2 GLYCERALDEHYDE ­3 ­P 2 NAD+ 2 NADH + 2 H+ pH 2 ATP NET 2 ATP 2 PYRUVATE 2 LACTATE GLYCOLYSIS KREB’S CYCLE LIMITING FACTORS •  OXYGEN •  FUEL •  MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION “PULL” REGULATION “PUSH” REGULATION ...
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