LS2 Lect13

LS2 Lect13 - ENERGY
METABOLISM
III:


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Unformatted text preview: ENERGY
METABOLISM
III:
 ENERGY
BALANCE
AND
STARVATION
 Ch.
13,
pp.
416‐449
and
ch.
25,
pp.
902‐939
 Prof.
Peter
Ellison,
office
hours
M
2‐3
 ENERGY
METABOLISM
III:
 ENERGY
BALANCE
AND
STARVATION
 OUTLINE:
 • 
PRINCIPLES
OF
ENERGY
 
ALLOCATION
 • 
MECHANISMS
OF
ENERGY
 
ALLOCATION
 • 
STARVATION
PHYSIOLOGY
 • 
OBESITY
 Ch.
13,
pp.
416‐449
and
ch.
25,
pp.
902‐939
 Prof.
Peter
Ellison,
office
hours
M
2‐3
 METABOLISM
 CATABOLISM
 ANABOLISM
 STORAGE
 PRINCIPLES
OF
ENERGY
ALLOCATION
 1.  TRADE‐OFFS 

 
“You
can
only
spend
a
calorie
once”
 2.  HIERARCHY
 
“First
things
first”
 ENERGY ?
 MAINTENANCE REPRODUCTION GROWTH TRADE‐OFFS:
MAINTENANCE
VS.
GROWTH
 The
Tsimane
are
a
populaEon
of
foragers
living
in
the
Amazonian
region
of
Bolivia.
 McDade
T
et
al.,
2008,
Am J Phys Anthropol. 136:478‐484. 
 Serum
CRP
levels
 C‐reacEve
protein
(CRP)
is
a
non‐specific
 immune
system
protein,
elevated
by
a
broad
 range
of
immune
system
challenges.
 Elevated
CRP
in
Tsimane
children
is
 associated
with
slower
growth
in
the
 succeeding
three
months,
parEcularly
in
 younger
children,
and
parEcularly
in
those
 with
low
fat
reserves.
 Tsimane
children
2
to
10
years
old

 Tsimane
children
2
to
4
years
old

 McDade
T
et
al.,
2008,
Am J Phys Anthropol. 136:478‐484. TRADE‐OFFS:
MAINTENANCE
VS.
REPRODUCTION
 College
males
geYng
flu
shots
experience
a
drop
in
testosterone
 levels
rela]ve
to
controls.
 Simmons
ZL,
Roney
JR.

2009.

Am
J
Hum
Biol
21:133‐135
 TRADE‐OFFS:
MAINTENANCE
VS.
REPRODUCTION
 College
males
diagnosed
with
the
flu
have
lower
testosterone
 levels
than
healthy
controls
 p
<
0.05
 p
<
0.01
 Muehlenbein
et
al.
2010.

Am
J
Hum
Biol
22:546‐556
 PRINCIPLES
OF
ENERGY
ALLOCATION
 1.  TRADE‐OFFS 

 NEWTON’S
PRINCIPLE
 
“You
can
only
spend
a
calorie
once”
 2.  HIERARCHY
 DARWIN’S
PRINCIPLE
 
“First
things
first”
 LESE OF THE ITURI FOREST, CONGO 20 PERCENT OF CONCEPTIONS 18 HARVEST
SEASON
 HUNGER
SEASON
 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN ENERGY ?
 MAINTENANCE REPRODUCTION GROWTH GLUCAGON
 INSULIN
 ACTIONS
OF
INSULIN
 ACTIONS
OF
GLUCAGON
 GLUCOSE
UPTAKE
 GLYCOGEN
SYNTHESIS
 PROTEIN
ANABOLISM
 FAT
STORAGE
 RELEASE
FREE
FATTY
 ACIDS
FOR
UPTAKE
 BY
ADIPOCYTES
 GLYCOGEN
SYNTHESIS
 GLYCOGENOLYSIS
 GLUCONEOGENESIS
 FATTY
ACID
SYNTHESIS
 KETONE
FORMATION
 IMPORTANT
REGULATORY
HORMONES
 CATABOLIC
 ANABOLIC
 GLUCAGON
 INSULIN
 EPINEPHERINE
 GROWTH
HORMONE
 CORTISOL
 IGF
 SEX
STEROIDS
 RHESUS
MACAQUE
 Mass BMR BMR/Mass CHIMPANZEE
 
4
kg
 
215
kcal/day
 
65
kcal/kg/d
 Mass BMR BMR/Mass Mass BMR BMR/Mass HUMAN
 
65
kg
 
1650
kcal/day
 
25
kcal/kg/d
 
35
kg
 
1050
kcal/day
 
30
kcal/kg/d
 100 OTHER FAT HEART 80 PERCENT OF BMR KIDNEY LIVER 60 40 MUSCLE 20 BRAIN 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 AGE ( yrs) 30 35 40 45 (Elia, 1 992) BASAL
METABOLIC
RATE
DURING
PREGNANCY
 Prentice and Goldberg 2000, AJCN THYROID

 HORMONE
AXIS
 Uncoupling
protein
 NORTH
POLE
 SVALBARD
 NORWAY
 120 TOTAL T4 (nmol/L) 110 100 90 80 70 SVALBARD
 60 June October January March 130 NENETS RUSSIANS 120 TOTAL T4 (nmol/L) 110 100 90 80 70 60 May-June Aug-Nov Nov-Jan Feb-Apr Yakut
males
 Yakut
males
 Yakut
females
 Predicted
 Yakut
females
 Predicted
 TIME 07:48:12 PM 07:24:12 PM 07:00:12 PM 06:36:12 PM 06:12:12 PM 05:48:12 PM 05:24:12 PM 05:00:12 PM 04:36:12 PM 04:12:12 PM 03:48:12 PM 03:24:12 PM 03:00:12 PM 02:36:12 PM 02:12:12 PM 01:48:12 PM 01:24:12 PM 01:00:12 PM 12:36:12 PM 12:12:12 PM 11:48:12 AM 11:24:12 AM 11:00:12 AM 10:36:12 AM 10:12:12 AM 09:48:12 AM 09:24:12 AM 09:00:12 AM 08:36:12 AM 08:12:12 AM 07:48:12 AM HEART RATE (bpm) THE
GAMBIA
 130.0 120.0 110.0 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 1000.00 900.00 800.00 VO2 (ml/min) 700.00 600.00 500.00 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 0.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 110.00 HEART RATE (beats/min) 120.00 130.00 1
MJ

=

239

Kcal
 RAINFALL
 SENEGAL
 Simondon
et
al.
2008,
EJCN
 ENERGY
STORES
 SOURCE 
 
 
 
 
 
AVE
TOTAL
KCAL
 CARBOHYDRATE
 
 
 
 






840
 PROTEIN 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


24000
 FAT 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
135000
 STARVATION
PHYSIOLOGY
 STRATEGY
 MECHANISM
 REDUCE
ACTIVITY
 REDUCE
BMR 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LOWER
THYROID
HORMONES
 REDUCE
GLUCOSE
UTLIZATION 
 
LOWER
INSULIN
 RESTRICT
ANABOLISM 
 
 
 
LOWER
GH,
SEX
STEROIDS
 INCREASE
FAT
UTILIZATION 
 
 
INCREASE
CORTISOL
 PRIORITIZE
BRAIN
METABOLISM
 
SHIFT
TO
KETONE
BODIES
 GLYCOGEN,
OTHER
CARBS
 
GYCEROL
 GLUCOSE
 LIVER
 FATTY

 ACIDS
 AMINO
ACIDS
 KETONE
 BODIES
 NO
MITOCHONDRIA
 ANAEROBIC
GLYCOLYSIS
ONLY
 NO
β‐OXIDATION
 ANAEROBIC
GLYCOLYSIS
 
INSUFFICIENT
 KETONE
 CAN UTILIZE
KETONE
BODIES
 BODIES
 
TO
FORM
ACETYL‐CoA
 KETONE
BODIES
 SMALL
ENOUGH
TO
CROSS
THE
BLOOD‐ BRAIN
BARRIER
 ACETONE
 ACETOACETATE
 β-HYDROXYBUTARATE NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY DATA FOR U.S. ADULTS PREVALENCE OF OBESITY IN ADULTS (%) 40 30 20 10 0 1 960-62 1971-74 1976-80 Y ears 1988-94 1999-2000 NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY DATA FOR U.S. ADOLESCENTS AGE 12-19 PREVALENCE OF OBESITY (%) 20 10 0 1 966-1970 1971-74 1976-80 Y EARS 1988-94 1999-2000 PERCENT
OF
ADULT
POPULATION
18‐65
YRS
OLD
REPORTING

 NO
RECREATIONAL
EXERCISE
IN
2000
 PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT 40 30 20 10 0 <1 2-5 6-10 11-20 TV VIEWING (hrs/wk) 21-40 41+ ...
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