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LS2 Lect25 - THE IMMUNE SYSTEM pt 2 Chapter 22 Prof Peter...

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THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - pt. 2 Chapter 22 Prof. Peter Ellison, office hours M 2-3 or by appt.
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THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - pt. 2 Chapter 22 Prof. Peter Ellison, office hours M 2-3 or by appt. Acquired (Adaptive, Specific) Immunity 1. MHC proteins 2. Antigen presentation 3. T & B cell responses 4. Antibody diversity 5. Immunological memory
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SOLUBLE CELLULAR INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) ACQUIRED (ADAPTIVE, SPECIFIC) COMPLEMENT ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS HISTAMINE CYTOKINES MACROPHAGES MAST CELLS POLYMORPHONUCLEAR CELLS ANTIBODIES B CELLS T CELLS MEMORY CELLS FAST, NON-SPECIFIC, LOCAL MOBILIZE RESOURCES THAT ARE ALREADY AVAILABLE SLOWER, SPECIFIC, SYSTEMIC DEPEND ON MASSIVE CLONAL PROLIFERATION AND ANTIBODY PRODUCTION
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Adaptive (acquired, specific) immunity is based on identifying foreign invaders and eliminating them before they can do much damage. Lymphocytes (B cells, T cells) do the screening. If they detect an invader, they call in the SWAT team (phagocytes, mast cells, complement, eosinophils, natural killer cells) to do the eliminating.
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The cells of your body have “self” identification cards in the form of MHC proteins that can be recognized by lymphocytes. These proteins also display the markers by which invaders can be identified and targeted.
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Antibodies are proteins produced by lymphocytes that have capacity to bind specific molecules based on three- dimensional, structural correspondence. How do your lymphocytes know how to make antibodies to antigens that may not have even evolved yet? Antigens are molecules that can be bound by antibodies.
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MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX A region on chromosome 6 with many modular coding elements that can be combined in a virtually limitless number of ways.
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MHC elements are combined to form antibodies (e.g., immunoglobulin G, also known as “gammaglobulin” or IgG) , lymphocyte receptors (e.g., T cell receptor, TCR), T cell markers (CD8, CD4), and human leukocyte antigens (HLA class 1 and 2). All of these have “constant” regions (marked C above) that are the same on all cells or antibodies of that type. Some also have “variable” regions (V) that are different in different cells.
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Lymphocytes All nucleated cells
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CD4 and CD8 are “T cell marker” proteins that distinguish helper T cells (CD4) from cytotoxic T cells (CD8).
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T cell and B cell receptors (and the secretory immunoglobulins, e.g., sIgG, that are derived from B cell receptors) have “hypervariable” regions at their tips that can bind to a nearly limitless range of antigens. But each B or T cell makes only one variant of this receptor.
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