LS2.Lecture26.Osmoregulation

LS2.Lecture26.Osmoregulation - LS2 Osmoregulation: the...

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LS2 Osmoregulation: the kidney, water, and ions Prof. George V. Lauder Office Hours: Friday 2-3+ (after class), and by appointment any time Assigned Reading for this lecture: Custom text, pp. 811 – 853 (green page #s)
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Lecture outline Overview of osmoregulation - General types: osmoconformers, osmoregulators - Water and ion homeostasis Overview of the human kidney: anatomy How the kidney works - Structure and function of the nephron ** diagram** - Hormonal control of osmoregulation Comparative osmoregulation (very briefly) - Salt excreting glands in birds - Comparative nephrons; fish without glomeruli
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Overview of osmoregulation Two fundamental strategies used by animals Osmoregulator Osmoconformer
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Advantages to osmoregulation Osmoregulators can live in a wide variety of habitats: marine, estuaries, freshwater, land. Disadvantages for osmoregulators Osmoregulation is energetically costly , depending on how different the animal’s internal osmolarity is from the environment, how permeable the animal’s surfaces are to water and ion movement, and how costly it is to pump ions across membranes. Overview of osmoregulation
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Overview of osmoregulation What is regulated? Water : largest constituent of body; 55-65% of body weight
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Blood volume and blood pressure: by adjusting volume of water lost in urine Plasma ion concentrations: sodium, potassium, and chloride ions (by controlling quantities lost in urine) calcium ion levels Blood pH: by controlling loss of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions in urine Valuable nutrients (e.g., glucose): by preventing excretion of nutrients, while excreting organic waste products Nitrogenous waste from protein catabolism: by excreting urea Overview of the kidney What is regulated?
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LS2.Lecture26.Osmoregulation - LS2 Osmoregulation: the...

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