Unformatted text preview: ACI 330.1-94 Standard Specification for Plain Concrete Parking Lots
Reported by ACI Committee 330
Robert V. Lopez Chairman Richard O. Albright J. Howard Allred William L Arent* Paul D. Brooks Philip R. Brua Larry Cole
* Member, Specification Task Force. Chairman, Specification Task Force. Dale H. Diulus Vice Chairman Howard J. Durham Melvin W. Flanagan Nader Ghafoori Dennis W. Graber* Robert S. Jackson Frank A. Kozeliski Don J. Wade Secretary Richard E. Miller, Jr. Jon I. Mullarky Douglas P. Phillips Phil Weiss This standard covers minimum requirements for the construction of plain concrete parking lots on grade. Included are requirements for materials, placing, texturing, curing, jointing, and opening to traffic. Keywords: concrete parking lots; concrete pavements; construction; curing; jointing; pavement; specifications: texturing. FOREWORD F1. This foreword is included for explanatory purposes only; it does not form a part of Standard Specification ACI 330.1. F2. Standard Specification ACI 330.1 is a Reference Standard which the Architect/Engineer may cite in the Project Specifications for any building project, together with supplementary requirements for the specific project. F3. Each technical section of Standard Specification ACI 330.1 is written in the Three-Part Section Format of the Construction Specifications Institute, as adapted by ACI and modified to ACI requirements. The language is generally imperative and terse. F4. Checklists do not form a part of Standard Specification ACI 330.1. Checklists are to assist the Architect/ Engineer in properly choosing and specifying any necessary requirements for the Project Specifications. PREFACE TO SPECIFICATION CHECKLIST P1. Standard Specification ACI 330.1 is intended to be used by reference or incorporation in its entirety in the Project Specifications. Individual sections, articles, or paragraphs shall not be copied into the Project Specifications, since taking them out of context may change their meaning. P2. If sections or parts of Standard Specification ACI 330.1 are edited into project specifications or any other document, they shall not be referred to as ACI Standards, since the Standard Specification has been altered. P3. Building codes set minimum requirements necessary to protect the public. This Standard Specification may stipulate requirements more restrictive than the minimum. Adjustments to the needs of a particular project shall be made by the Architect/Engineer by reviewing each of the items in the Specification Checklist and then including the Architect/Engineer's decision on each item as a mandatory requirement in the Project Specifications. P4. These mandatory requirements designate the specific qualities, procedures, materials, and performance criteria for which alternatives are permitted or for which provisions were not made in the Standard Specification. Exceptions to the Standard Specification shall be made in the Project Specifications, if required. P5. A statement such as the following will serve to make Standard Specification ACI 330.1 a part of the Project Specifications. Work on shall conform to all requirements of ACI 330.1, Standard Specification for Plain Concrete Parking lots, published by the American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan, except as modified by the requirements of these Contract Documents. P6. The Standard Specification Checklist identifies Architect/Engineer choices and alternatives. The checklist identifies the sections, parts, and articles of the Standard Specification and the action required by the Architect/ Engineer.
Adopted as a standard of the American Concrete Institute by the expedited standardization procedure effective Mar. 1, 1994. Copyright 1993. American Concrete Institute. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means. including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors. 330.1-l 330.1-2 ACI STANDARD MANDATORY SPECIFICATION CHECKLIST Section/Part/Article Section 1 - General 1.7.1 Inspection and testing Section 2- Products 2.1.1 Concrete air content Section 3- Execution 3.1- Subgrade preparation 3.6.5 Elevations and thickness Notes to the Architect/Engineer Review for compliance with Project Specifications. Designate the Owner's representatives for "Inspection and Testing." Specify expected exposure condition during exposure (mild, moderate, or severe). Specify subgrade preparation requirements appropriately in Project Specifications. Specify final surface elevations and pavement thicknesses on Project Drawings. Include ACI 306.1 in Contract Documents. Specify joint locations, depths, and dimensions on Project Drawings [3.13.1], or Review and accept drawings from Contractor describing joint requirements [3.13.2].
OPTIONAL SPECIFICATION CHECKLIST 3.12.2 Cold weather construction 3.13- Jointing Section/Part/Article Section l- General 22.214.171.124 Testing and inspection Section 2- Products 2.1-Concrete 2.1.1 Concrete strength Notes to the Architect/Engineer Specify other than ASTM C 94 for concrete testing, inspection, and remedy for concrete failing to meet strength requirements, when permitted. Specify cement specifications and type when other than ASTM C 150, Type I cement is required. Specify strength when other than 4000 psi compressive strength at 28 days is required. Specify total required air content when other than those listed in Table 2.1.2 is required. Specify slump other than required in Section 2.1.4, when permitted. Specify dowel and tiebar sizes on Project Drawings, when required. Specify in Contract Documents, when permitted. Specify joint reinforcement locations on Project Drawings, when required. Specify other than broom finish, when permitted. Specify curing method other than membrane-forming curing compound, when permitted. Specify extent of filling isolation joints other than full depth, when required. Specify other than 3000 psi compressive strength, when permitted. 2.1.2 Concrete air content 2.1.4 Slump 2.2.3 Dowel and tiebar sizes Section 3- Execution 3.2- Subbase 3.4- Placing joint reinforcement 3.9- Final surface texture 3.11- Curing 3.13.4 Isolation joints 3.14- Opening to traffic PLAIN CONCRETE PARKING LOTS 330.1-3 SUBMITTAL CHECKLIST Section/Part/Article Section 2-Products 2.1.5 Concrete mix proportions Section 3- Execution 3.12.1 Hot weather construction 3.13.2 Jointing requirements I Notes to the Architect/Engineer Required. When required. When required. CONTENTS Section l-General, pg. 330.1-3 govern unless otherwise specified in the Contract Documents. 1.2.-Definitions These definitions are to assist in interpreting the provisions of this specification. Accepted-Accepted by or acceptable to Architect/ Engineer. Architect/Engineer-The architect, engineer, architectural firm, engineering firm, or architectural and engineering firm issuing Project Drawings and Project Specifications, or administering the Work under the Contract Documents. Cold weather-A period when for more than 3 successive days the average daily outdoor temperature drops below 40 F. The average daily temperature is the average of the highest and lowest temperature during the period from midnight to midnight. When temperatures above 50 F occur during more than half of any 24 hr duration, the period shall no longer be regarded as cold weather. Contractor-The person, firm, or corporation with whom the Owner enters into an agreement for construction of the Work. Contract Documents-Documents including Project Drawings and Project Specifications covering the required Work. Free edge-The edge of pavement abutting an isolation joint or the edge of the pavement against which no concrete is placed. Hot weather-Any combination of the following conditions that tend to impair the quality of freshly mixed or hardened concrete by accelerating the rate of moisture loss and rate of cement hydration or causing concrete cracking at other than joints: a. High ambient temperature. b. High concrete temperature. c. Low relative humidity. d. Wind velocity. e. Solar radiation. Isolation joint-A full-depth joint which isolates or separates the pavement from fixed objects within or abutting the newly paved area. Mild exposure condition-Pavement never subjected to freezing and thawing or to deicing agents. Moderate exposure condition-Exposure in a climate 1.1-Scope 1.2-Definitions 1.3-Reference organizations 1.4-Reference standards 1.5-Submittals 1.6-Storage and handling 1.7-Quality assurance
Section 2-Products, pg. 330.1-5 2.1-Concrete 2.2-Joint reinforcement 2.3-Membrane forming curing compound 2.4-Isolation joint material 2.5-Forms
Section 3-Execution, pg. 330.1-5 3.1-Subgrade preparation 3.2-Subbase 3.3-Setting forms 3.4-Placing joint reinforcement 3.5-Batching, mixing, and transporting concrete 3.6-Placing and finishing fixed-form pavement 3.7-Placing and finishing slipform pavement 3.8-Edging 3.9-Final surface texture 3.10-Tolerances 3.11-Curing 3.12-Hot and cold weather construction 3.13-Jointing 3.14-Protect pavement from damage 3.15-Opening to traffic
Appendix-Metric Conversions, pg. 330.1-7 SECTION 1-GENERAL l.l-Scope 1.1.1 This Standard Specification covers requirements for the construction of plain concrete parking lots on grade, including attached curbs. 1.1.2 The provisions of this Standard Specification 330.1-4 ACI STANDARD where freezing is expected but where the concrete will not be continually exposed to moisture or free water for long periods prior to freezing and will not be exposed to deicing agents or other aggressive chemicals. Owner-The corporation, association, partnership, individual, or public body or authority with whom the Contractor enters into an agreement, and for whom the Work is accomplished. Panel-A section of concrete pavement between joints. Project drawings-The drawings which, along with the Project Specifications, complete the descriptive information for constructing the Work required or referred to in the Contract Documents. Parking lot-An area used to park automobiles and/or trucks on grade. Pavement (concrete)-A layer of concrete over such areas as roads, sidewalks, canals, playgrounds, and those used for storage or parking. Permitted-Permitted by the Architect/Engineer. Project Specifications-The written documents which specify requirements for a project in accordance with service parameters and other specific criteria established by the Owner. Reference standards-Standards of a technical society, organization, or association, including the building codes of local or state authorities, which are referenced in the Contract Documents. Severe exposure condition- Exposure to deicing chemicals or other aggressive agents or where the concrete may become highly saturated by continued contact with moisture or free water prior to freezing. Subbase-A layer in the pavement system between the subgrade and the concrete pavement. Subgrade-The soil prepared and compacted to support the pavement system. Submitted-Submitted to the Architect/Engineer for review. Work-The entire construction of separately identifiable parts thereof which are required to be furnished under the Contract Documents. Work is the result of performing services, furnishing labor, and furnishing and incorporating materials and equipment into the construction, all as required by the Contract Documents. 1.3-Reference organizations ACI: American Concrete Institute P.O. Box 19150 Detroit, MI 48219 ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials 1916 Race Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 l.4-Reference standards 1.4.1 ACI standards 117-90 Standard Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete, Construction and Materials 306.1-90 Standard Specification for Cold Weather Concreting 1.4.2 ASTM standards A 615-92 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement C 94-92 Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete C 150-89 Standard Specification for Portland Cement C 309-89 Standard Specification for Liquid MembraneForming Compounds D 1751-83 Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction (Nonextruding and Resilient Bituminous Types) D 1725-84 Specification for Preformed Sponge Rubber and Cork Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction 1.5-Submittals 1.5.1 Submit drawings and documentation as required in this specification. 1.5.2 Obtain written acceptance of submittals before using the materials or methods requiring acceptance. 1.6-Storage and handling 1.6.1 Store construction material in a clean, dry location. 1.7-Quality assurance 1.7.1 Testing and inspection 126.96.36.199 Tests required to document submittals, certify product compliance with this Standard Specification prior to use in construction, establish concrete mixture proportions, provide acceptability of changes requested by the Contractor, or appeal rejection of material found defective by Owner's test, shall be performed by accepted laboratories. 188.8.131.52 The Work in progress will be inspected and materials, equipment, and procedures will be evaluated for quality and acceptability by representatives of the Owner or as designated in the Contract Documents. 184.108.40.206 The Contractor shall permit and facilitate access of the Owner's representatives to the construction sites and the performance of all activities for quality assurance and quality control by these representatives, including inspection and testing required in these Specifications. 220.127.116.11 Failure to detect defective work or material shall not prevent later rejection when the defect is discovered nor shall it obligate the Architect/Engineer for final acceptance. 18.104.22.168 Concrete shall be tested and inspected in accordance with ASTM C 94. Concrete failing to meet strength requirements shall be remedied in accordance with ASTM C 94, unless otherwise specified. PLAIN CONCRETE PARKING LOTS 330.1-5 Table 2.1.2-Required total air content
Nominal maximum aggregate size, in.
3/8 1/2 3/4 Total air content, percent Mild exposure 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 Moderate exposure 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 Severe exposure 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 pavement thickness is obtained in all locations. Regrade and recompact any Subgrade disturbed by concrete delivery vehicles or other construction equipment. Do not use sand or loose material to obtain final Subgrade elevation. 3.2-Subbase Use only when required by Contract Documents. If used, prepare Subbase in accordance with Section 3.1Subgrade preparation. 3.3-Setting forms 3.3.1 Set, align, and brace forms so that pavement will meet the tolerances specified in Section 3.10-Tolerances. 3.3.2 Apply form release agent to inside face of forms prior to placement of concrete. 3.3.3 The edge of previously placed concrete may be used as a form. Do not apply form release agent to previously placed concrete. 3.4-Placing joint reinforcement Place at locations indicated on Project Drawings. Support joint reinforcement so that it will not be dislocated by concrete placing operations. Place and align to meet the requirements of Section 3.10-Tolerances. 3.5-Batching, mixing, and transporting concrete Comply with ASTM C 94. 3.6-Placing and finishing fixed-form pavement 3.6.1 Deposit concrete directly from the transporting equipment onto the Subgrade. Do not place concrete on frozen Subgrade or Subbase. Other methods of conveying the concrete may be used when accepted by the architect/engineer. 3.6.2 Deposit concrete between the forms to a uniform height. 3.6.3 Vibrate or spade concrete to remove voids and air pockets. Do not move concrete horizontally with vibrator. 3.6.4 Strike off concrete between forms using a formriding paving machine or vibrating screed. Other strikeoff devices may be used when accepted. 3.6.5 After strikeoff, finish concrete with a bullfloat. Remove excess water and laitance. Do not use steel trowels or power finishing equipment. Finish the pavement to the elevations and thickness specified in the Project Drawings, and meet the requirements of Section 3.10Tolerances. 3.7-Placing and finishing slipform pavement 3.7.1 When accepted, slipform equipment may be used. Deposit concrete in accordance with Section 3.6.1 and finish concrete in accordance with Section 3.6.5. 3.8-Edging Edge top surface edges to a radius of in. Do not 1 1 1/ 2 SECTION 2- PRODUCTS 2.l- Concrete-Comply with ASTM C 94 and the following requirements: 2.1.1 Strength-Specified compressive strength shall be 4000 psi at 28 days unless otherwise specified. 2.1.2 Total air content-Comply with Table 2.1.2 unless otherwise specified. 2.1.3 Aggregates-Maximum aggregate size shall not exceed one-third of the pavement thickness. 2.1.4 Slump-Shall not exceed 4 in. for pavements placed by other than slipform equipment or 1 in. for concrete placed with slipform equipment. Concrete with different slumps may be used when accepted. 2.1.5 Submit documentation describing concrete mixture proportions in accordance with Section 1.5-Submittals. 2.2-Joint reinforcement When used, comply with ASTM A 615 and: 2.2.1 Dowel bars shall be plain bars. 2.2.2 Tiebars shall be deformed bars. 2.2.3 Dowel bars and tiebars shall be of sixes indicated in Project Drawings. 2.3-Membrane-forming curing compounds Comply with ASTM C 309, Type 2, Class A. 2.4-Isolation joint material Comply with ASTM D 1751 or ASTM D 1752. 2.5-Forms Forms shall be made of steel or wood or other material capable of supporting mechanical concrete placing equipment without settling vertically, bowing inward or outward, or crushing. Forms shall have sufficient rigidity to maintain specified tolerances and shall be clean and free of dirt, rust, and hardened concrete. SECTION 3-EXECUTION 3.1-Subgrade preparation Prepare Subgrade as required in the Contract Documents. Construct Subgrade to insure that the required 330.1-6 ACI STANDARD edge surface edges if the joint is to be widened to provide a reservoir for joint sealant. 3.9-Final surface texture Broom concrete surface with a steel or fiber broom to produce corrugations between l/l6 and 1/8 in. deep. Broom perpendicular to nearest edge of pavement. Broom all areas of a panel in the same direction. Use the same type and manufacture of broom for all paved surfaces to provide consistent appearance. Other methods of producing final surface texture may be used when specified or accepted. 3.10-Tolerances Construct pavement to comply with ACI 117 and to within the following tolerances: Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3/ 8 in. - in. Surface: In any direction, the gap below a 10 ft unleveled straightedge resting on highspots shall not exceed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. Joint reinforcement: Tiebars: Lateral alignment and spacing . . . 1 in. Vertical alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . in. Alignment of tiebar end relative to line perpendicular to edge of pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. Dowels: Lateral alignment and spacing . . . 1 in. Vertical alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . in. Alignment of dowel bar end relative to line perpendicular to edge of pavement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in./ft of dowel Table 22.214.171.124-Spacing between joints
Pavement thickness, in. 3 4,4 5,5 6 or greater Maximum spacing, ft 8 10 12 15 Joint spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 in. Contraction joint depth . . . . . . . . . . + in., -0 in. Joint width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +1/8 in.,-0 in. 3.11-Curing Apply membrane-forming curing compound to all exposed surfaces at a maximum coverage rate of 200 ft2/ gal. Apply curing compound immediately after final surface texture has been obtained and water sheen has disappeared. Apply curing compound to pavement edges after forms have been removed. Alternate curing methods may be used when specified or accepted. 3.12-Hot and cold weather construction 3.12.1 In hot weather, protect finished concrete with windbreaks, shading, fog spraying, pending, or wet covering to finished concrete to prevent cracking at locations other than contraction joints. If required, submit detailed procedures for the production, transportation, placement, protection, curing, and temperature monitoring of concrete during hot weather. 3.12.2 In cold weather, comply with ACI 306.1. 3.13-Jointing 3.13.1 Construct joints at the locations, depths, and with dimensions indicated on the Project Drawings or accepted drawings submitted by the Contractor. 3.13.2 If jointing requirements are not indicated on the Project Drawings or if submittals are required, the Contractor shall submit drawings describing jointing requirements in accordance with Section 1.5-Submittals and the following requirements: 126.96.36.199 Indicate locations of all contraction joints, construction joints, and isolation joints. Locate joints at spacings shown in Table 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206 The larger dimension of any panel shall not exceed 125 percent of the smaller dimension. 220.127.116.11 The minimum angle between any two intersecting joints shall be SO deg. 18.104.22.168 Joints shall intersect pavement free edges at a 90-deg angle and shall extend straight for a minimum of 1 ft from the pavement edge. 22.214.171.124 Align joints of adjacent panels. Align joints in attached curbs with joints in pavement. 126.96.36.199 Describe joint depths, widths, and keyway dimensions. 188.8.131.52 Minimum contraction joint depth shall be one-fourth of the pavement thickness. 184.108.40.206 Use isolation joints only where pavement abuts buildings, foundations, manholes, and other fixed objects. 3.13.3 Construct contraction joints by one of the following methods: 220.127.116.11 Construct contraction joints in fresh concrete after concrete has set sufficiently to maintain the formed joint to the specified depth and width. 18.104.22.168 Insert plastic strips vertically into the fresh concrete. Depress strips into pavement until flush with surface. 22.214.171.124 Saw-cut concrete after concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent aggregate being dislodged and soon enough to control pavement cracking. If contraction joint sawing causes a crack, discontinue sawing that contraction joint and continue sawing other contraction joints. 3.13.4 Extend isolation joints through the full depth of the pavement. Fill the entire isolation joint with isolation joint material unless otherwise required by Project Drawings or accepted jointing drawings submitted by the Contractor. (See Sections 3.11.1 and 3.11.2). PLAIN CONCRETE PARKING LOTS 330.1-7 3.14 Protect pavement from damage. 3.15-Opening to traffic Pavement may be opened to vehicular traffic when the concrete compressive strength exceeds 3000 psi or when accepted for opening to traffic. APPENDIX-METRIC CONVERSION This document has been approved for publication and further process in accordance with the ACI Standardization Procedure. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2012 for the course CIVE 336 taught by Professor Desormeaux during the Spring '12 term at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
- Spring '12