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Exam 1 study guide - 6 classes of nutrients carbohydrates...

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6 classes of nutrients - carbohydrates, Protein, Fat, Vitamins, Minerals, Water Carbs function - energy, fiber, 4 kcal Protein structure - CHON, amino acids,4 kcal Lipid funcions - make hormones, carry vitamins, provide cell structure, 9 kcal Oils at room temp - liquid Fats at room temp - solid Fat soluble vitamins - A,D,E,K Water soluble vitamins - B and C Function of vitamins - Enable chemical reactions Minerals structure - inorganic, 16 essential Functions of minerals - Nervous system function,water balance, structural systems, cellular process Water % of body - 60% Functions of Water - Solvent, lubricant, transports nutrients and waste, temp regulation, chemical processes 6 food groups - grains, vegtables, fruits, fat/oils, dairy, meat & beans 3 grains - rice, oats, whole wheat Factors that affect food choices - environmental, health status, sensory, cognitive, genetics How nutritional status is measured - nutritional assessment Nutritional assessment involves the following assessments - Anthropometric, Biochemical, Clinical, Dietary, Environmental (A, B, C, D, E) Anthropometric assessment is the measurement of - the body Biochemical assessment is the measurement of - blood, urine Clinical assessment is the measurement of - visible signs Organs in the digestive system - mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, colon, rectum Parts of small intestine - duodenum, jejunum, ilium Info on food label - name, manufacturer, uniform serving size, amount in package, ingredients, nutrient components Digestive function of mouth - salivary amylase → carbs, lingual lipase melts hard fat Digestive function of stomach - inactivates amylase, gastric lipase acts on short chain FA, gastrin →pepsinogen + HCl →pepsin breaks down protein into peptones → small intestine Digestive function of small intestine - maltase, sucrase, lactase→ carbs, TG → monoglycerides & FA, duodenal cells release cholecystokinin →bile from liver, peptones→peptides & AA→absorbed by portal vein→liver Digestive functions of colon - ferment viscous fiber Bile emulsifies lipids in - small intestine, suspends monoglycerides & FA in digestive juices & micelles Pancreatic juices secretes - pancreatic lipase that breaks the FA off glycerol Liver metabolizes proteins by breakdown of - AA→ circulation into AA pool AA pool provides - protein synthesis & energy Carbs are digested in - mouth, small intestine
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