Cell - Cell Physiology & Biochemistry NDFS 435 1...

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1 Cell Physiology & Biochemistry NDFS 435
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Objectives Review cell structures and functions Use as a reference for how and where nutrients and processes fit into the cellular structure Understand how and why the cell functions 2
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3 mitochondria vacuole lysosome free ribosomes peroxisomes microtubules nucleus nuclear pore chromatin Rough Endoplasmic Recticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi complex nucleolus
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4
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5 Phosphate groups-polar-hydrophilic Fatt acids-nonpolar-hydrophobic hydrophilic
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6 HO CH 3 CH 3 HC CH 2 H 2 C CH 2 H 3 C CH 3 H C CH 3 H 2 C O C O CH 2 H 2 C CH 2 H 2 C CH 2 H 2 C CH 2 H 2 C CH 2 H 2 C CH 2 H 2 C CH 2 H 2 C CH 3 H C 2 O P O - O O H 2 C H 2 C N + H 3 C H 3 C H 3 C O C O CH 2 H 2 C 2 H 2 C 2 H 2 C 2 C H H 2 C C H C H H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 3 Choline H H H N + H H 2 C H 2 C H H H N + H C H 2 C COO - -ethanolamine -serine (S) HC (R) CH ( S) CH (S) HC ( S) OH OH OH OH OH -inositol Cholesterol P o l a r Nonpolar Cis Trans
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7 Ways to Cross Membranes Carrier or transport proteins Pores Receptors
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8 Plasma Membrane Permeability Water: no problem Small nonpolar molecules, fat soluble: Diffusion Smaller faster Larger slower Small polar molecules, < 100 daltons, only 1 or 2 polar groups. Diffusion Charged molecules in resting state: impermeable Special ways needed
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9 Ion Concentrations Ion Inside (mM) Outside (mM) Na+  5-15 145 K+ 140 5 Mg++ 30  1-2 Ca++ 1-2  1.5-5 Cl- 4 110
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App Act Volunteer: Draw a cell and the location of all ions How do charged ions get across the membrane? 10
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11 Carrier or Transport Proteins Carrier or transport proteins Facilitated diffusion: moves polar molecules through plasma membrane without molecules contacting the hydrophobic part of the membrane Act as membrane bound enzymes Allosteric Passive transport requires no energy Active transport requires energy Secondary active transport
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12 X Uniport Cotransport Symport Cotransport Antiport X Y X Y
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13 X CX C X A. Passive diffusion Concentration X: high Concentration X: low Outside Inside B. Active Transport positive negative Concentratikon Y: high Concentration Y: low Mg-ATP or Mg-GTP Mg-ADP OR Mg-GDP + PO 4 Y C C CY Y C. Secondary active transport Concentration Na + : high Concnetration Na + : low positive negative G Na + C G Na C C G Na +
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14 http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120068/bio03.swf
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15 Categories of Pores Ligand-gated channels External cellular ligand opens channel Voltage gated channels Change in membrane potential opens channel Responds to intracellular concentration or specific ions All pores have channel proteins + outside - inside
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16 All pores have channel proteins
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17 Squid Axon Cl - = 540 mM Na + = 440 mM Outside Inside Outside Cl - = 100 mM Na + = 50 mM K + = 400 mM K + = 20 mM ---------------- +++++++++ a. Concentration gradients Na Channel K + leak channel Na/K Pump Na + K + Na + K + b. Effect of action potential c. Cell at rest Na + K + Na + K + Ca 2+ -gated Na +
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18 Cellular Energy Na/K pump uses to ½ of cellular energy In nerves, this may be up to 70%
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course NDFS 435 taught by Professor Toryparker during the Winter '11 term at BYU.

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Cell - Cell Physiology &amp; Biochemistry NDFS 435 1...

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