Fat Soluble Vitamin D

Fat Soluble Vitamin D - 1 Fat Soluble Vitamins 2 Vitamin D...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Fat Soluble Vitamins 2 Vitamin D NDFS 435 Objectives • Understand sources and formation of vitamin D • Review vitamin D metabolism • Discuss new research directions 2 3 Vitamin D History 1 • Middle ages to 1900 – 1600 – 1800 • Rickets was found primarily in rich families – Children kept inside homes – Dauphin of France died of rickets in 1790’s – 1800 + Industrialization • England first – Coal smog blocked UV radiation » Children in towns developed rickets » Rickets was called the English disease • Sunshine was identified as being important • Cod-liver oil became a folk remedy 4 Vitamin D History 2 • 20 th Century – 1919 Mellanby, London • Active research with dogs – 1922 McCollum, USA • Confirmed that cod-liver oil cured xerophthalmia and rickets – Substance named Vitamin D – 1920’s & 30’s • Vitamin D structure determined • Precursors identified • International Unit developed – 1 IU = 0.025 µg vitamin D-3 – 400 IU = 10 µg vitamin D-3 5 Vitamin D History 3 • 1970’s – Metabolites of vitamin D identified • 1980’s – 90’s – Metabolism of metabolites elucidated – Vitamin D receptors identified in many tissues – One metabolite set up as the nutritional status marker (biomarker) • 2000+ – Biomarker found to be low in many populations 6 Ergosterol – Precursor to (Vitamin D-2) First Identified Arrows show where D-2 differs from D-3 Adapted from Gropper et al. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, 4th edition. 7 Vitamin D-3 Metabolism C-1 C-25 Adapted from Gropper et al. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, 4th edition. 8 Sources of Vitamin D • Skin synthesis - Modified by • Skin pigmentation • Sun screen • Other filters: clothing, glass, plastic • Season of the year (>latitude 40°) • Age • Food sources – Fortified milk (400 IU/qt) – Fortified breakfast cereals – Fortified orange juice – Fatty fish and their oils • Cod-liver oil 9 Vitamin D Recommendations • 1989 RDA – 1-24 years: 10 µg (400 IU) – > 25 years: 5 µg (200 IU) • 1997 AI – 1-50 years: 5 µg (200 IU) – 51- 70 years: 10 µg (400 IU) – > 70 years: 15 µg (600 IU) – UL 50 µg (2000 IU) These AI may increase for all groups with the next recommendations 10 10 10 Intestinal Absorption & Transport • Vitamin D incorporated into micelles...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2012 for the course NDFS 435 taught by Professor Toryparker during the Winter '11 term at BYU.

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Fat Soluble Vitamin D - 1 Fat Soluble Vitamins 2 Vitamin D...

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