NI-Tutorial-6645 - Document Type: Tutorial NI Supported:...

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1/12 Advanced RFID Measurements: Basic Theory to Protocol Conformance Test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Overview As RFID adoption continues to grow, the need to validate tags for interoperability with products from other vendors and for conformance with the specified protocol is increasing. Today’s market also drives the mounting pressure to improve tag performance. RFID system designers face a significant test challenge when attempting to meet the needs of this emerging market. Fortunately, the demand for RFID technology has spawned both significant industry growth and innovation. In fact, scientists in the research and commercial environments have often chosen National Instruments measurement tools to characterize both tag and reader performance. Table of Contents Introduction Part 1: RFID Theory of Operation Part 2: RFID Test Instrumentation Part 3: Tag and Antenna Characterization Part 4: Protocol and Conformance Test Part 5: RFID Test Vendors and Third Parties Introduction This application note explains both the basic functionality of RFID systems and the measurements that are commonly made. It explores some of the key technical design and implementation challenges RFID design and test engineers face. In addition, it provides insight into how customers have used measurement systems based on PC-based modular instruments in researching and developing RFID products. While many of the principles discussed are broadly applicable to all RFID standards, this article mainly focuses on the ISO 18000-6C (Class 1, Gen 2) specification [1]. This standard addresses UHF RFID in the bands from 860 to 960 MHz, and is commonly used in applications ranging from supply chain to baggage tracking in airports. This application note has five sections: RFID theory of operation Introduction to tag testing methodology Tag and antenna characterization System protocol and conformance test RFID products and third parties Each section provides theoretical background and practical measurement tips and techniques. Use this document to gain comprehensive knowledge about RFID measurement systems and a more detailed understanding of the ISO1800-6C specification. While several unique architectures for RFID measurement systems are examined, the discussion primarily focuses on results from the VISN-100 RFID tester, illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1. Screenshot of the VISN-100 RFID Measurement System The heart of this measurement system is the NI PCI-5640R IF transceiver, which uses NI LabVIEW FPGA Module code to fully emulate either a tag or reader. The VISN-100 RFID measurement system is the preferred solution for RFID testing because it provides both PHY layer and protocol layer measurements in an out-of-the-box package. In addition, because this system is purely software-defined, it is also user-configurable for custom measurements and analysis. Part 1: RFID Theory of Operation
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2012 for the course ECON 1 taught by Professor Tuki during the Spring '12 term at CSU Pueblo.

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NI-Tutorial-6645 - Document Type: Tutorial NI Supported:...

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