cryptanalysis 4 - Algorithms and Mechanisms Cryptography is...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Algorithms and Mechanisms Cryptography is nothing more than a mathematical framework for discussing the implications of various paranoid delusions Don Alvarez Historical Ciphers Non-standard hieroglyphics, 1900BC Atbash cipher (Old Testament, reversed Hebrew alphabet, 600BC) Caesar cipher: letter = letter + 3 ‘fish’ ilvk rot13: Add 13/swap alphabet halves Usenet convention used to hide possibly offensive jokes Applying it twice restores the original text
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Substitution Ciphers Simple substitution cipher: a = p, b = m, c = f, ... Break via letter frequency analysis Polyalphabetic substitution cipher 1. a = p, b = m, c = f, ... 2. a = l, b = t, c = a, ... 3. a = f, b = x, c = p, ... Break by decomposing into individual alphabets, then solve as simple substitution One-time Pad (1917) OTP is unbreakable provided Pad is never reused (VENONA) Unpredictable random numbers are used (physical sources, e.g. radioactive decay) x x c d m g 24 24 3 4 13 7 5 19 12 1 8 +15 OTP 19 5 17 3 5 18 t e r c e s Message
Image of page 2
One-time Pad (ctd) Used by Russian spies The Washington- Moscow “hot line” CIA covert operations Many snake oil algorithms claim unbreakability by claiming to be a OTP Pseudo-OTPs give pseudo-security Cipher machines attempted to create approximations to OTPs, first mechanically, then electronically Cipher Machines (~1920) 1. Basic component = wired rotor Simple substitution 2. Step the rotor after each letter Polyalphabetic substitution, period = 26
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cipher Machines (ctd) 3. Chain multiple rotors Each rotor steps the next one when a full turn is complete Cipher Machines (ctd) Two rotors, period = 26 26 = 676 Three rotors, period = 26 26 26 = 17,576 Rotor sizes are chosen to be relatively prime to give maximum-length sequence Key = rotor wiring, rotor start position
Image of page 4
Cipher Machines (ctd) Famous rotor machines US: Converter M-209 UK: TYPEX Japan: Red, Purple Germany: Enigma Many books on Enigma Kahn, Seizing the Enigma Levin, Ultra Goes to War Welchman, The Hut Six Story Winterbotham, The Ultra Secret “It would have been secure if used properly” Use of predictable openings: Mein Fuehrer! ...” “Nothing to report” Use of the same key over an extended period Encryption of the same message with old (compromised) and new keys Post-war KW-26 common fill device shredded the key card when the cover was opened to prevent this Device treated as a magic black box, a mistake still made today Inventors believed it was infallible, " " " " "
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Cipher Machines (ctd) Various kludges were made to try to improve security none worked Enigmas were sold to friendly nations after the war Improved rotor machines were used into the 70’s and 80’s Further reading: Kahn, The Codebreakers Cryptologia, quarterly journal Stream Ciphers Binary pad (keystream), use XOR instead of addition Plaintext = original, unencrypted data Ciphertext = encrypted data Two XORs with the same data always cancel out 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Plaintext 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 XOR Keystream 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Ciphertext 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 XOR Keystream 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Plaintext
Image of page 6
Stream Ciphers (ctd) Using the keystream and ciphertext, we can recover the
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern