Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Nagel Chapter 4 The evidence shows...

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Nagel Chapter 4 The evidence shows that for anything to happen in your mind it has to happen in your brain as well. Your experiences are within your mind with a kind of insidedness that is different from the way the brain is inside your head. One possible solution to the Mind- Body Debate is that there is a soul attached to the body, which allows them to interact in some way. In this sense you are made of two parts; the physical body and a complex soul that is purely mental. The view that people consist of nothing but physical matter, and mental states are physical states of the brain is called materialism. These processes can be explained and discovered by science. There is another theory called the dual aspect theory which states that the brain is the seat of consciousness, but its mental states are not just physical states. So the brain is composed of both mental and physical processes. Chapter 6 Free Will Nothing up to the point at which you choose something determines irrevocably what your choice will be. It remains an open possibility. However, there are some things that are determined in advanced. The idea of determinism is that the circumstance exists before we act, determine our actions and make them inevitable. The sum total of a person’s experiences, desires, knowledge, hereditary constitution, social circumstances, and the nature of the choice combine to make a particular action in the circumstances inevitable. A change in the circumstances may change the predicted results. If determinism is true then everything that you choose was predetermined. The implications of this are that you could never sensibly blame yourself for a choice. Free action asserts that free will is a basic feature of the natural world. There is another view that for an action to be considered free, it has to be produced by certain kinds of causes in you. It suggests that the cause has to be of a familiar psychological type. Metaphysical Libertarian Initial argument: 1. Introspection i.e. a person’s reports of the contents of his own mind are extremely reliable 2. By introspection we experience ourselves acting freely i.e. not causally determined. 3. Thus, we do have free will. i.e. our actions are not causally determined. Question concerning premise 1: With what respect is introspection extremely reliable? a. With respect to the quality of the inner experience/contents of one’s mind that it reports? b. Or with respect to the causes of that inner experience/contents of one’s mind? In other words what does that internal scanner of introspection reliably detect? The Hard Determinist may criticize premise 1 by pointing out the following: Reliability of introspection is plausible with respect to the quality of inner experience. However, introspection is not in general reliable concerning how the inner observation came about. Example: phantom pain.
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Final Exam Study Guide - Nagel Chapter 4 The evidence shows...

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