Test 2 Review

Test 2 Review - PHI 205 Self Defeat or Self Refutation We...

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PHI 205 Self Defeat or Self Refutation We mean, in the narrowest sense, that a statement implies its own negation. There are two kinds of self defeat; 1. Logical self defeat- a statement or a theory that implies its own negation or amounts to a contradiction with itself. Ex: That much is certain: we are always fallible, there is just no certain knowledge. 2. Pragmatic self defeat- a certain action required with respect to the sentence in order for some kind of contradiction to arise, such as; a). uttering or writing a sentence, b). an attempt to follow a command, c). an attempt to convey a certain meaning with a sentence. Ex: Never say never. What is truth? First, truth can mean the correct beliefs about something. In this sense it is a question about content, or subject matter. In the second sense, it is a question about a characteristic of certain sentences. Philosophers are different and want to get to the bottom of things, they consider the second question is more fundamental. Philosophers say they must understand what makes any sentence true before they can try to find the truth about anything. They must know how to distinguish a true sentence from a false one before they can begin collecting the truth. The Representationalist Representation is defined as one thing that conveys information about another thing, or one thing that stands for another thing. Mental representations that exist in someone’s mind, they are complex symbols that carry information about something. For example, a law is a representation that exists in your mind. Mental images are like pictures, and mental concepts are like words, but other mental representations are like whole sentences. Another representation is a belief, which is defined as a mental representation consisting of a complete thought. In ordinary conversation true means that a property of a sentence which corresponds to the world, or a property of a sentence that is congruent with a fact. A true sentence corresponds to the world, it reports something that really does exist in the world, and there is a one to one relation between the sentence and the things the words are about. So if my beliefs are true then they are true for me and for you and anyone. Truth depends on the relation between the belief and the world. We all act on the basis of our beliefs and if our beliefs are true then we will act successfully on the basis of our beliefs. Our beliefs embody the information we have about the world and they make up one’s mental model of the world. We should care about the truth. The Postmodernist The ten these on language; 1). Things change- language is all about paradigms. Shifts occur in people’s thinking about language and truth. 2). Red is not red- Words do not resemble the things they stand for. In general, language does not
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Test 2 Review - PHI 205 Self Defeat or Self Refutation We...

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