Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide Ordinary...

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Final Exam Study Guide Ordinary People in the 1500s The average person consumed over two pounds of bread per day. The quality of food between all people and classes was about the same- short on animal protein. The primary source of meat was game and most people bought their food from vendors and consumed lots of porridge. Vitamin C deficiency, which led to scurvy was a prominent issue in this time. As was gout, a condition characterized by uric acid in the blood stream, however, this was primarily an affliction of the wealthy. Europeans in or around the Mediterranean had more access to vegetables, whereas, Northern Europeans only had access to vegetables during the summer and fall. Europeans during this time also did not have access to potatoes, corn, tomatoes, chilies, clovers, tea, coffee, or tobacco, because these were all New World crops. The prominent notion during this time was that men needed more meat then women. Ale was commonly consumed and was produced by mostly women. The nobility decided that birds were the most appropriate source of meat for them because birds were closer to the sky which meant closer to God. The consumption of birds was also supposed to bring about morality and was overall more ennobling. The consumption of pigs was considered more appropriate for common peoples. Death To Europeans it looked like death stalked the young not the old. The average life expectancy was 40 years old. Ars Moriendi- The Art of Dying. Phillip Stubbs was so pleased with how well his wife died that he published A Crystal Glass for Christian Women, which was basically a guide for how women should die well. During this period there was a morbid preoccupation with death. Names During this time people did not have last names. Last names initially developed among the wealthy Italian families. By the 16 th century noble families were using surnames. The Dutch and Germans added Van plus the town they were from as their last name. Other nobles developed surnames inspired by their coat of arms or heraldry. The common people adopted surnames slowly because surnames were seen as a status symbol. Surnames adopted by common people were based upon occupation or physical trait and it became inheritable. The Icelandic people did not inherit family names, they were instead meant to act as family status symbols (i.e. Jan’s son). Economics Families originally engaged in partible inheritance, which meant that all male children got a portion of the estate or landholdings as inheritance. Partible inheritance proved to be self defeating because it fragmented holdings to the point the lands were not economically important. Therefore, the mode of inheritance became progenitor, meaning the eldest son received the inheritance or estate. Girls of the family received nothing because they were married off as economic property. However, with the nobility if a family had no sons the daughter may get everything. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2012 for the course HI 209 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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Final Exam Study Guide - Final Exam Study Guide Ordinary...

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