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Annotated bib. 2

Annotated bib. 2 - Melissa Walters IS 491 Torgersen Helge...

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Melissa Walters IS 491 Torgersen, Helge, and Alexander Bogner. "Austria's Agri-Biotechnology Regulation: Political Consensus Despite Divergent Concepts of Precaution." Science & Public Policy (SPP) 32.4 (2005): 277-84. Web. Austria, who is a member of the European Union, has been at the forefront of applying the precautionary principle as to deny the use of certain genetically modified varieties of maize, despite these GM varieties having been approved by other member countries of the European Union. This has formed the normative policy ideas of GM crops in Austria. On the other hand the application of the precautionary principle has blurred the boundaries of the relationship between policy making and science. On one side these boundaries were blurred by, implementing policy where only the scientific findings count and on the other by portraying a profound skepticism towards science. From the late 1990s through the present the role of non- governmental organizations, or NGOs, and their campaigning provided for the removal of GM crops in the agricultural and political arena. Agricultural practices are meant to reflect environmental impacts. Government in Austria subsidized organic farms, which was meant to protect the rural structure from “niche- market export strategy” (p. 2). With rise of right- wing coalitions the implementation of GM crops had not changed, in fact two varieties of GM maize were banned in 2000. A non- GM future was embraced by Austria and many scientific, political, and farming actors were proponents of this. A good number of farmers aligned themselves with non-GM farmer’s associations. The authors go on to develop the role of actors within the issue of GM crops and the use of the precautionary principle. The rationales of these actors do not help make policy necessarily but it does provide important insight into the interpretation of these policies. The role of policy makers is to determine to what level risk and uncertainty is acceptable and can be defined into proper policy. The article discusses that organic farming is prominent as there is disapproval of GM crops. Overall, the increased flexibility of Austria’s policy concerning GM crops has been beneficial to some European Union members due to introducing elements such as; the “comparative assessment of agricultural practices, long- term monitoring, traceability, and labeling” (p. 8).
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Dobos, Eva, and Artemis Karaali. "Capacity Building in Agricultural Biotechnology in Turkey." Food Reviews International 19.4 (2003): 437. Web. Since 1999 Turkey has been a candidate country for admission into the European Union, thus, the country displays characteristics of both industrialized and developing countries. The author cites that the main purpose of the article was to investigate the role different actors have in introducing biotechnology to the Turkish agricultural system. Some of the major concerns of industrialized countries involving GM crops are regarding the impact these biotech crops will
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