Annotated bib. 3

Annotated bib. 3 - Melissa Walters IS 491 Lieberman, Sarah,...

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Melissa Walters IS 491 Lieberman, Sarah, and Tim Gray. "GMOs and the Developing World: A Precautionary Interpretation of Biotechnology." British Journal of Politics & International Relations 10.3 (2008): 395-411. Web. The advances of biotechnology in producing new agricultural feats such as genetically modified organisms, particularly crops and foods, have made promises concerning their ability to encourage the development of today’s third world countries. Some of the results of the biotech revolution in agriculture are crops which are resistant to drought, salinity, and specific pests. Despite these seemingly well- intentioned innovations both developing and developed countries remain undecided about how to approach genetically modified products. Some countries in Europe and Japan remain skeptical about genetically modified products especially with issues surrounding their human health and environmental safety uncertainties. They are also skeptical about whether GM crops are truly necessary to support food resources. The result of uncertainty means that few countries have chosen to adopt agricultural biotechnology. The US however, leads the way in producing genetically modified products, with Canada and Argentina following close behind it. China has a profound interest in genetically modified cotton biotechnology and is currently the largest market for US GM crops. The European moratorium on GM crops poses a significant problem for trade for the US and other GM crop producing countries. However, it was the refusal of six African countries of food aid they found to be genetically altered that brought the issue of genetic engineering to the forefront of public, international, and political debates. The authors cite the major controversy in developed countries, where it has led to the tension over regulatory differences with the subject of genetically modified organisms. The main actors of the controversy are between the United States and the European Union. The authors explicitly state they intend to focus on the impacts of regulatory tension on developing countries such as Africa and the results of using the precautionary principle as theoretical framework to evaluate genetically modified (GM) food aid policy and GM crop growing promotion. The major difference in the interpretation of the precautionary principle between the United States and the European Union is that the United States utilizes a weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in relation to genetically modified organisms, this is also known as the substantial equivalence. While, the European Union evaluates genetically modified organisms using a strong interpretation of the precautionary principle, this is known as the potential difference. The article discusses that the interpretations used by the US and the EU are likely to change as a result of the failure of non- genetically modified crops or improvements with performance of genetically modified crops. The article also further delves into the issue of
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2012 for the course IS 491 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at N.C. State.

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Annotated bib. 3 - Melissa Walters IS 491 Lieberman, Sarah,...

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