Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Air AirPollution whenstoked,willbelchtheir...

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ir Pollution Air Pollution “ s soon as I had left the heavy As soon as I had left the heavy air of Rome with its stench from smoky chimneys which when stoked, will belch their enclosed pestilential vapor and soot, I felt a change in mood .” Lucius Seneca (Ancient Rome) 1
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What is Air Pollution? “The atmosphere becomes polluted when it is changed by the addition of particles, gases … so that the altered atmosphere poses some harm because of its impact on … human health, animals, vegetation or materials” odish 997 – Godish, 1997 The concept of pollution entails: • a sense of degradation • a loss of quality dverse environmental/health effects • adverse environmental/health effects
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rimary vs. Secondary pollutants Primary vs. Secondary pollutants rimary are emitted directly into the Primary are emitted directly into the atmosphere om chimney stack or farm activity From chimney stack or farm activity e.g. CO, NO, SO 2 , HC, PM dil hi l ti ith Secondary involve chemical reactions with primary pollutants Generated in atmosphere over time e.g. Ozone 3
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cute vs. Chronic Phenomena Acute vs. Chronic Phenomena phasis has been on acute events Emphasis has been on acute events Spectacular Make the news More significant are the effects of widespread deposition Results from commonly accepted polluting practices in land use, transportation etc. Effects are cumulative Æ potentially leading to ‘chronic’ conditions 4
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cute vs. Chronic Phenomena Acute vs. Chronic Phenomena st attention was on intensive observable Past attention was on intensive, observable “acute” events istorical events: Historical events: 1257 Queen Eleanor forced to leave Nottingham because of coal smoke 1273 Edward I prohibited use of one type of coal; prohibition ineffective; a coal merchant was tortured d hanged for smoke nuisance early corporate fines? and hanged for smoke nuisance = early corporate fines? 5
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cute vs. Chronic Phenomena Acute vs. Chronic Phenomena st attention was on intensive, observable Past attention was on intensive, observable “acute” events Problems compounded during the Industrial Revolution Major historical pollution episodes: 1873 London: 1150 deaths estimated 1909 Glasgow: 1063 deaths estimated 930 Meuse valley Belgium: 63 dead 6000 sick 1930 Meuse valley, Belgium: 63 dead, 6000 sick 1948 Donora, Pa.: 20 dead, 5900 sick 1952 London: 4000 deaths! 6
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he Earth’s Atmosphere The Earth s Atmosphere
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tmospheric composition Atmospheric composition by volume Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% up to 80 km Argon 1% Water vapour 0 4% Carbon dioxide (0.034%) and everything else (including Ozone and other pollutants etc.) in trace amounts 8
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ertical structure of atmosphere Vertical structure of atmosphere t sea level pressure is At sea level, pressure is just above 1000 mb (1 kg of air/m 3 ) ( g / Below elevation of 5.6 km, 1/2 of the atmosphere has been reached At 16 km, 90% of atmosphere has been traversed 9
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This document was uploaded on 03/23/2012.

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Lecture 4 - Air AirPollution whenstoked,willbelchtheir...

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