Smog - Smog Cit Smog City Pollution in the urban...

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Unformatted text preview: Smog Cit Smog City Pollution in the urban environment Source: Globe and Mail, August 16, 2002 2 GEOG/NRSC221 More and more people live in citie More and more people live in cities Canada, like much of the world, has experienced a net migration of people to cities Creates many problems Creates many problems not the least of which is poor air quality through poor air quality through photochemical smog 3 GEOG/NRSC221 Components of photochemical smog Components of photochemical smog Interna combustion gas engines operate at Internal combustion gas engines operate at sufficiently high temperatures to generate NO X from N and O in ai from N and O in air Also produce CO and reactive hydrocarbons (RH) (=VOCs (RH) (=VOC s) Catalytic converters convert CO to CO 2 A properly tuned engine reduces RH emissions Also produce primary aerosol particulates 4 GEOG/NRSC221 Photochemical smo Photochemical smog Primary pollutants from autos are NO and RH Primary pollutants from autos are NO and RH These are converted in the presence of sunlight to the two most prevalent secondary pollutants NO 2 and O 3 and a host of other pollutants Turco, 2002 5 GEOG/NRSC221 Requirements for smo Requirements for smog Source of primary pollutant Source of primary pollutants Transportation/industry emitting NOx and RH Timing of emission Timing of emissions Simultaneous release in morning Distribution of sources Concentration in urban centres or regions Prevailing meteorology Clear skies, warm temperatures with inversion 6 GEOG/NRSC221 Requirements for smo Requirements for smog Regional topography Regional topography Mountains or anything that blocks airflow; valleys Geographical character Vegetation emitting VOCs; natural sources of particulates etc. Season Secondary pollutant creation more efficient in summer; higher temperatures increase rates of formation Urban demographics Presence of old/poorly maintained vehicles; public will; tolerance of smo tolerance of smog 7 GEOG/NRSC221 A day in the life of smog A day in the life of smog (PAN) (VOC) 8 GEOG/NRSC221 Pollution trend Pollution trends Originally air quality legislation was concerned Originally air quality legislation was concerned with pollution concentration reduction at ground level near poin source emission ground level near point source emission taller stacks e g Sudbury ON superstack (380m e.g. Sudbury, ON superstack (380m) Result? Greater downwind dispersion! Leads to transport over 100s or 1000s km Transboundary air pollution 9 GEOG/NRSC221 The Sudbury Superstac The Sudbury Superstack 10 GEOG/NRSC221 The Sudbury Superstac The Sudbury Superstack Inco (now CRVD Inco) nickel smelter near Sudbury, ON Tallest chimney in the Western Hemisphere (2...
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Smog - Smog Cit Smog City Pollution in the urban...

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