UV and Health

UV and Health - Ultraviolet Radiation and Health: Friend or...

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Ultraviolet Radiation and Health: Friend or Foe?
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•“ There just wasn’ tsc ien t i f icoreconom ic There just wasn t scientific or economic justification to proceed. How do you trade aposs ib le[env ironmenta l]r iskfora a possible [environmental] risk for a [business] risk that is real”? Joseph Steed, Du Pont Environmental Manager 2
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History of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) • Originally unrelated to CFC’s Originally unrelated to CFC s –SST and NOxproduct ion (1971) – Chl from space shuttle (1974) •T h i s w a s ( o n e o f ) t h e f i r s t t i m e s t h a t scientists became involved in environmental policy – Rejected paper in Science •1 9 7 1 : U S e s t a b l i s h e d C l i m a t e I m p a c t Assessment Program to study impact of SST 3
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•S pace shuttle was first man-made source of Chl to be studied –1 /3 o f NASA budge t – Scientists pressured by NASA to downplay significance of shuttle program and to emphasize volcanoes •N A S A b e c a m e p r e - e m i n a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r studying stratospheric ozone with budget of $15- 20 M that continued during the period when later 20 M that continued during the period when later negotiations for International Protocols were occurring 4
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• Roland and Molina (1974&1976) Roland and Molina (1974&1976): –CFCs are inso luab lein troposphere Odd chlorine atoms in stratosphere would act – Odd chlorine atoms in stratosphere would act as a catalyst – Long lived therefore large depletion over time – Long-lived therefore large depletion over time –Ca l led for immed iate ban on aeroso l propellants “Stratospheric formation and photolysis of chlorine nitrate” J. Physical Chemistry 1976 Physical Chemistry, 1976 “Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine catalysed destruction of ozone” Nature, 249, 810-814 (1974) 5
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• Long bureaucratic delays (wait for more study!) Long bureaucratic delays (wait for more study!) •I n d u s t r y f a v o u r s w a i t i n g f o r m o r e s t u d y • Oregon and New York did not wai Oregon and New York did not wait –Res t r ic ted CFCs in ae roso l p rope l lan ts – Better to be safe than sorry! •D u P o n t : i f s t u d i e s s h o w e d t h a t C F C s c a n n o t be used without a threat to health, Du Pont will stop production of these compounds” (US Congress, 1974) 6
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•P r e c a u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e –In the face of sc ient if ic uncerta inty, regu lators should act to prevent harm rather than wait until damage occurs • “we cannot afford to give chemicals the same constitutional rights that we enjoy under the law; chemicals are not innocent until proven guilty” Russell Peterson, Chairman of the President’s Council on Environmental Quality and former Du Pont chemist 7
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• Industry protested that no substitutes Industry protested that no substitutes available Once regulations in place substitutes • Once regulations in place, substitutes quickly came on the market • The availability of substitutes dictated by policy and not science (directly) 8
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UV and Health - Ultraviolet Radiation and Health: Friend or...

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