SIO35 - Central Valley Project •Transport water south to...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Central Valley Project •Transport water south to irrigate drier Central Valley farmlands. •Control spring flooding •Diverts waters from: •Trinity River •Sacramento River •American River •Stanislaus River •San Joaquin River •85% of water for agricultural use Trinity Dam Up to 90% of Trinity River discharge diverted out of its watershed into Sacramento Valley. Part of Central Valley Project. Humboldt County--Eel River Huge seasonal variation--Note logrithmic scale. Winter rains vs dry summer season. High stream flow in winter--Note flood of 64/65. Note winter storm flow 1000-10000 times higher than summer flow. Braided rivers--varying discharge. Eel River--1 yr Sediment loads turn rivers brown during intense storm periods. This is natural, but is exacerbated by logging and grazing practices. Mattole River--10 yrs Mattole River--1 yr Inyo The Owens River is in the South Lahontan region in the rain shadow of the Sierras. Note differences between North Coast region rivers--which are strongly influenced by winter and spring rains--and Owens River (for example). Owens River streamflow is dominated by snowmelt. In what month/season is the peak flow? (See also next slide) How does the magnitude of the flow vary throughout the season? How might the streamflow in this river change if global warming continues and the Sierras start to lose their snowpack? What about rivers draining the west slopes of the Sierras like the Merced and Tolumne? Peak in July -- snowpack Lower Otay Dam State Water Project •Redistribute water primarily from Feather River watershed to urban areas. •Control spring flooding. •70% of water to urban and industrial use •30% to agricultural use Central Valley Project •Transport water south to irrigate drier Central Valley farmlands. •Control spring flooding •Diverts waters from: •Trinity River •Sacramento River •American River •Stanislaus River •San Joaquin River •85% of water for agricultural use Sacramento River Region •31% of state’s total runoff--most from west slopes of Sierras. •147 dams •Artificial levees allow natural flood plain to be populated by cities and farmland. •More than 2/3 of Californians receive some of their water from the SWP which gets most of its water from this region. Sacramento River drains Klamath Mts. American and Feather Rivers drain Sierras. Sacramento Valley Supply and Demand The drainage basin comprises about one-twelfth of the area of the continental United States. Despite its size, the Colorado River ranks only sixth among the nation’s rivers in volume of flow with an average annual flow in excess of 15 million acre-feet. In comparison, the Columbia River’s drainage area is about the same size, but its flow is about 12 times greater. Demands on the Colorado River are not limited to needs within the basin. In fact, more water is exported from the basin than from any other river in the U.S. The Colorado River provides municipal and industrial water for more than 24 million people living in the major metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, Phoenix, Albuquerque, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Denver, & San Diego The "Pacific Decadal Oscillation" (PDO) is a long-lived El Niño-like pattern of Pacific climate variability. While the two climate oscillations have similar spatial climate fingerprints, they have very different behavior in time. Fisheries scientist Steven Hare coined the term "Pacific Decadal Oscillation" (PDO) in 1996 while researching connections between Alaska salmon production cycles and Pacific climate (his dissertation topic with advisor Robert Francis). Dammed if you do and dammed if you don’t! Tuolumne River "Dam Hetch Hetchy! As well dam for watertanks the people's cathedrals and churches, for no holier temple has ever been consecrated by the heart of man." -- John Muir. Headwaters in Yosemite National Park. Water from the Tuolumne watershed is also sent to San Francisco via the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir and Aquaduct. Debate over Dams: (1) Environmental considerations (fisheries, scenic areas, natural river habitats) (2) All major river systems are already dammed - off-stream dams (e.g., Diamond Valley Reservoir) (3) Raise existing dams could dramatically increase storage capacity (4) Raze existing dams - dams have finite life Other Solutions: Banking water in groundwater reservoirs, transfer deals, local reservoirs, conservation not a drop to drink By the middle of this century, 7 billion people could be short of water. At best, it will be 2 billion people. approximately 71 percent of the Earth's surface is covered with water. Yet, by all accounts, the world is on the verge of a water crisis. What exactly that water crisis entails, or when it will hit, depends on what part of the world you're looking at. In droughtplagued regions, such as Zimbabwe, Mauritania, and the western United States, the water crisis has already begun. SWP can generate about 5.8 billion kilowatts/yr; it is only 3/4ths energy required to pump water through the Central Valley Edmonston pumping plant uses more energy than any other single user or facility in the state!! State Water Project • Not efficient use of topography • Requires huge energy to pump water across landscapes • SWP is California’s largest energy consumer Desalination plant is proposed by the Encinitas Power Plant. It would consume approximately 3% of the plants output (965 MW) with a load of 35 MW. 4,700-5,400 kWh per acre-feet The SWP provides approximately 24% of San Diego’s water supplies and consumes ~ 3,000 kWh/Acre-feet. Problems with desalination increased energy use and brine expulsion to environment 35 grams/liter to almost 38 grams/liter if combined with cooling water from adjacent power plant. Benefits? Aswan Dam What happens when Ethiopia and Sudan start extracting more water from the Blue Nile? White Nile is smaller source for the Nile mostly from Blue Nile Climate Population growth Polution Sea level changes ___ How much can we push the system? 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson- background radiation Evidence for Water Stony Planets Gassy Planets El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) El Nino conditions are only one end member of a system oscillating between two extremes. When the pressure differential is low (low SOI) the trade winds slacken and the West Pacific Warm Pool runs “downhill” towards the east. This results in warmer waters and a deeper thermocline in the east, as well as eastward movement of the region of precipitation. The opposite conditions (La Nina) result from an increased pressure differential (high SOI). Note thermocline position along S. America Arid Region (desert) down stream of mountains Runoff Sierra Snowpack Tides Estimated Temperatures for the Midieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age MWP LIA State Water Project •Redistribute water primarily from Feather River watershed to urban areas. •Control spring flooding. •70% of water to urban and industrial use •30% to agricultural use Central Valley Project •Transport water south to irrigate drier Central Valley farmlands. •Control spring flooding •Diverts waters from: •Trinity River •Sacramento River •American River •Stanislaus River •San Joaquin River •85% of water for agricultural use The drainage basin comprises about one-twelfth of the area of the continental United States. Despite its size, the Colorado River ranks only sixth among the nation’s rivers in volume of flow with an average annual flow in excess of 17.5 million acre-feet. So Where do we go from here? Where will you be the day after tomorrow?? But be here at 11:30 next Monday! ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/23/2012 for the course SIO 35 taught by Professor Driscoll,n during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online