Lecture1_2011.keyr

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Unformatted text preview: http://scrippseducation.ucsd.edu/faculty/driscoll/water Look at water, taste and smell it; pure water is virtually colorless and has no taste or smell. Sounds pretty boring right - well, the hidden qualities of water make it anything but boring! • This course will examine the physical and chemical properties of water that make it so unique and vital for living things. • We will also explore the origin of water on Earth and evidence of water on neighboring planets. • Finally, sociality relevant issues concerning water will be discussed in terms of water use practices, contamination, and climate change. SIO35 - Water Grades • Midterm - 25% • Final - 50% • Homework - 25% • Extra Credit Optional - Book Report on Cadillac Desert (2 pages) - 5 extra points to FINAL grade 4 - In class exercises (present for all 4 raises your Final grade) San Diego Average Rainfall Average Precipitation Last 7 days over 2 inches El Nino Strong El Nino La Nina Strong La Nina What is El Nino? San Diego River How does discharge vary - seasonally, San Luis Rey River yearly, decadally? Discharge •Episodic Event Driven Rivers •Huge Variability in Annual Rainfall •May affect the river signal in beach sands PDO Index Streamflow data from San Luis Rey River Gauge station near Bonsall. http:// www.circleofblue.o rg/waternews/2010/ world/infographictest-yourknowledge-withthe-water-andenergy-quiz/ Rainfall predictions for California T n sins o p c , rive ru o a da te p ra re - th efu d mn l in ic to o re d n wa k r n ff n ir me tu s re n a e ta d a rs f th s tu o th Ws h ro g a c le- p in toad c einth re io 'sms e ta s f e e t's yd lo ic l yc o t e lin e g n o t va a len tu l re o rc , wte a p p la na dd mn g w inth Ws lu b a ra s u e a r, s o u tio n e a d ro s e e t. http://scrippsnews.ucsd.edu/Releases/?releaseID=856 Sierras Colorado River http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/object/article?f=/c/a/ 2008/12/16/MNDD14OIOF.DTL&o=1 Water Diversion and conveyance Different regions of California clearly have different precipitation patterns. Different levels of precip, rain vs. snow…affects how water moves across the landscape. Point out North Coast, Sierras and Central Valley, Mojave (South Lahontan), Colorado River region… Note most of the Central Valley receives very little rainfall… Different regions of California clearly have different precipitation patterns. Different levels of precip, rain vs. snow…affects how water moves across the landscape. Point out North Coast, Sierras and Central Valley, Mojave (South Lahontan), Colorado River region… Note most of the Central Valley receives very little rainfall… Different regions of California clearly have different precipitation patterns. Different levels of precip, rain vs. snow…affects how water moves across the landscape. Point out North Coast, Sierras and Central Valley, Mojave (South Lahontan), Colorado River region… Note most of the Central Valley receives very little rainfall… Who is the largest energy user in California? Different regions of California clearly have different precipitation patterns. Different levels of precip, rain vs. snow…affects how water moves across the landscape. Point out North Coast, Sierras and Central Valley, Mojave (South Lahontan), Colorado River region… Note most of the Central Valley receives very little rainfall… Different regions of California clearly have different precipitation patterns. Different levels of precip, rain vs. snow…affects how water moves across the landscape. Point out North Coast, Sierras and Central Valley, Mojave (South Lahontan), Colorado River region… Note most of the Central Valley receives very little rainfall… California Conserves Water (CalCoWa) Different regions of California clearly have different precipitation patterns. Different levels of precip, rain vs. snow…affects how water moves across the landscape. Point out North Coast, Sierras and Central Valley, Mojave (South Lahontan), Colorado River region… Note most of the Central Valley receives very little rainfall… The pumping has been so extreme that NASA’s twin GRACE satellites can detect the changes in local gravity caused by the massive loss of water. The two satellites are so sensitive to gravity that they are affected by changes in mass on earth’s surface — and water is very heavy. Ironically, a few months ago this same research group at NASA reported a massive loss of groundwater in India over approximately the same period of time, but the California loss is nearly twice as large. Different regions of California clearly have different precipitation patterns. Different levels of precip, rain vs. snow…affects how water moves across the landscape. Point out North Coast, Sierras and Central Valley, Mojave (South Lahontan), Colorado River region… Note most of the Central Valley receives very little rainfall… Irrigation Preserving environments $$$ $$$ Metropolitan What is so special about the Earth? Venus V in L n in 1a d2(V 1&V 2). Detoth lo d n ityo th Mrtia a o p e , th ik g a d g n L L u e w e s f e a n tms h re e te p ra reo th s rfa eisc n lle p a b s la h a g a din re c o gtoth me tu f e u c o tro d rimrily y o r e tin , n fra d o lin e a o p e a ds a e ra e th nh a e c a g w th a o p e . tms h re n p c , th r a e t x h n e ith e tms h re Too much too hot Too little too Cool Water is one of the few substances that exists in all three phases at the Earth’s surface for the range of temperatures and pressures Phase Diagram for Water Water is the modulator Earth’s surface 70% water; average depth of the oceans is 3800 m Oceans formed early on in Earth History ~3.8 Billion years ago! • The human body is over 70% water and the brain is 90%. • Water is needed to transport nutrients and oxygen through the blood system to the cells. • We need water to breathe. Our lungs must be moistened to facilitate the breathing process. • Every day, we lose approximately one pint of water from our bodies just from exhaling. • Water helps regulate our body temperature through perspiration. • Over 99% of all chemical reactions depend on water. If we do not consume enough water, all the systems and organs within our bodies become clogged, operate inefficiently, and sometimes shut down all together. • Water also helps to generate the electrical potential in our cells. Without electrical polarity, we could not live. Without water, our existence on this planet would cease. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2012 for the course SIO 35 taught by Professor Driscoll,n during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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