Chap-2-Chemical Formulas-Composition Stoichiometry-2011

Chap-2-Chemical Formulas-Composition Stoichiometry-2011 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Chem 1411 1 General Chemistry 1 (Chem -1411) Chem 1411 Significant figure (a) 24.61178 round off : 24.612 g (b) 1259.89218 round off : 126 0 g/L (c) 41.0947 round off : 41.1 mL Chem 1411 Final answer: 427 mi/h Significant Figure Chem 1411 Unit Factor Chem 1411 Chemical formulas & Composition stoichiometry Chem 1411 Chapter Goals 1. Chemical Formulas 2. Ions and Ionic Compounds 3. Names and Formulas of Some Ionic Compounds 4. Atomic Weights 5. The Mole Chem 1411 Chapter Goals 6. Formula Weights, Molecular Weights, and Moles 7. Percent Composition and Formulas of Compounds 8. Derivation of Formulas from Elemental Composition 9. Determination of Molecular Formulas 10. Some Other Interpretations of Chemical Formulas 11. Purity of Samples Chem 1411 Chemical Formulas • Chemical formula shows the chemical composition of the substance. – ratio of the elements present in the molecule or compound • He, Au, Na – monatomic elements • O2, H2, Cl2 – diatomic elements • O3, S4, P8 - more complex elements • H2O, C12H22O11 – compounds • Substance consists of two or more elements Chem 1411 Chemical Formulas Compound 1 Molecule Contains HCl 1 H atom & 1 Cl atom H2O 2 H atoms & 1 O atom NH3 1 N atom & 3 H atoms C3H8 3 C atoms & 8 H atoms Chem 1411 Molecular and Empirical Formulas Molecular formulas give the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule. Examples: H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, H2O2, O2, O3, and C2H4. Empirical formulas give the relative numbers and types of atoms in a molecule. That is, they give the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a molecule. Examples: H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, HO, CH2. Molecules and Molecular Compounds Chem 1411 Picturing Molecules Molecules occupy three dimensional space. However, we often represent them in two dimensions. The structural formula gives the connectivity between individual atoms in the molecule. The structural formula may or may not be used to show the three dimensional shape of the molecule. Molecules and Molecular Compounds Chem 1411 Picturing Molecules Molecules and Molecular Compounds Chem 1411 Molecules and Molecular Compounds Picturing Molecules If the structural formula does show the shape of the molecule, then either a perspective drawing, ball-and-stick model, or space-filling model is used. Chem 1411 Ions and Ionic Compounds • Ions are atoms or groups of atoms that possess an electric charge. • Two basic types of ions: • Positive ions or cations – one or more electrons less than neutral – Na+, Ca2+, Al3+ – NH4+ - polyatomic cation • Negative ions or anions – one or more electrons more than neutral – F-, O2-, N3- – SO42-, PO43- - polyatomic anions Chem 1411 Ions and Ionic Compounds • Sodium chloride – table salt is an ionic compound Chem 1411 When an atom or molecule loses electrons, it becomes positively charged....
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This note was uploaded on 03/23/2012 for the course CHEM 1411 taught by Professor Tri during the Spring '12 term at Truman State.

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Chap-2-Chemical Formulas-Composition Stoichiometry-2011 -...

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