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Unformatted text preview: Introduction Introduction to to Psychopathology Psychopathology Alan J. Fridlund, Ph.D. Early and Late Onset Disorders: Early and Late Onset Disorders: ADHD and Alzheimer’s Disease ADHD and Alzheimer’s Disease 11/29/07 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) DSM-4 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) DSM-4 Two Main Kinds: o Inattentive type-girls mostly o Hyperactive-impulsive type And-boys mostly o Combined Type Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Inattentive Type (need 6 or more): o Poor attention to detail, careless mistakes in schoolwork etc. o Can’t sustain attention to normal range of tasks o Doesn’t listen when spoken to directly o Doesn’t follow through on instructions, fails to finish assignments o Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities o Avoids, dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort o Often loses things necessary for tasks o Easily distracted o Frequently forgetful Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Hyperactive-Impulsive Type (need 6 or more): o Frequent fidgeting and squirming o Leaves seat frequently o Runs around or climbs excessively (in adolescence, feelings of restlessness) o Difficulty at quiet play o Excessive talking o Blurts out answers before Q is finished o Has difficulty waiting his/her turn o Frequently interrupts and butts in activities Who Has ADHD? Who Has ADHD? o Found in every culture and socioeconomic level o 3 – 5 percent of preadolescents have ADHD (range from 1-20%) o Males > Females: 3:1 to 9:1 ratio o Probable genetic link: concordances of 0.5 for MZ and 0.4 for DZ twins; 40- 50% of people with ADHD have at least one 1st-degree relative with ADHD. o Infants w/ prenatal complications, premature births, low birth weight o Infants whose mothers had high levels of anxiety during weeks 12-22 of their pregnancies. o Children w/ high blood levels of lead o Children who have had frequent changes of residence, whose parents have divorced, or whose fathers are irresponsible/antisocial (cause or effect?) Consequences of ADHD Consequences of ADHD o Poor school performance o ~20% of students w/ADHD have a concurrent learning disability o ~40-60% of ADHD children develop conduct disorder, delinquency and/or drug abuse o Up to 80% of ADHD children retain symptoms through adolescence o Only about 5% of college students w/ ADHD graduate. o Up to 70% of ADHD children retain symptoms through adulthood What Goes Wrong in ADHD? What Goes Wrong in ADHD? o Under-activation of frontal lobes o Abnormally low dopamine activity o Possible “sensory screen” o Abnormalities in sensing passage of time-50-90% of ADHD individuals also has at least one of the following: (it seldom exists by itself) • Bipolar Disorder (new pediatric diagnostic fad) • Conduct Disorder...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 102 taught by Professor Klein during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.
- Fall '08
- Social Psychology