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TEST 1 - OBJ - Unit 1 Overview of Abnormality Chapter 1...

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Unit 1: Overview of Abnormality Chapter 1 Learning Objectives 1. Explain the factors that influence whether a behavior is considered normal or abnormal. Depends on context. Cultural relativism – different definitions, no universal standards or rules. Every culture has their own criteria for what is normal Problems with it: Societal “norms” have historically been manipulated 2. Summarize the different perspectives that have been used to define abnormality. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective. What is the current perspective used to define abnormality? -Rare behaviors are abnormal : What is rare? Rare isn’t always problematic. -If the individual experiences discomfort and wishes to get rid of the behavior: What about behaviors that endanger others? -Behaviors are abnormal that result from mental illness or disease : Asumme that abnormality is a clear, identifiable categorically different phenomen/state of being that differs from “health”. Problems: Not all abnormal behaviors result from an identifiable disease. There are many causes for mental illness. Sometimes the line is hard to distinguish. CURRENT MODEL: Maladaptiveness= 4Ds -Dysfunction (interfering with their normal day-to-day life) -Distress (has to really be bothering the person) -Deviance (auditory hallucinations -Dangerousness 3. Explain the continuum model of abnormality. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the continuum model of abnormality. No real cut point for normal vs abnormal Subjective decision about what meets diagnostic criteria 4. Describe the components of maladaptive behavior. Is each component viewed from a categorical or continuous perspective? Explain how culture and gender may influence maladaptive behavior. Culture and gender influence: 1) Likelihood of expressions. 2) Ways people express distress. 3) Willingness to disclose. 4) Types of treatment 5. Describe the supernatural, natural, and psychological theories of abnormality. Explain how each theory led to different ways of treating mentally ill people throughout history. Biological: Similar to physical disease, breakdown of some systems of the body. Supernatural: Divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin Psychological theories: Mental disorders as the result of environmental influence, maladaptive thinking 6. Describe the historical shift from the early asylums in Europe and America to the moral treatment movement. Developed in reaction to brutal treatment in asylums. Based on the PSYCHOLOGICAL view that people became mad because they were separated from nature 7. Explain Emil Kraepelin’s and Richard Kraft-Ebing’s contributions to abnormal psychology.
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8. Describe the goal of the deinstitutionalization movement. Mental patients can recover more fully or live more satisfying lives if integrated into the community 9.
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