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psych106-3 - Lecture 3(Jan 17th NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES...

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Lecture 3 (Jan 17th): NEURONS AND NERVE IMPULSES Lecture Outline 1) Structure of Neurons parts of a neuron: soma, dendrites, axons 2) Neuronal Communication (Overview) 3) Mitosis and Regeneration in Neurons 4) Glial Cells (“support cells”) 5) The Nerve Signal (Electrical) - A Neuron at Rest - Graded Potentials and Action Potentials Blood Brain Barrier (you learn from book, just the very basics)
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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1) Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and Spinal Cord 2) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): The Rest Two types of cells in the Nervous System: 1) Neurons (100 billion, 10 11 ): communicate through electrical signals 2) Glia (10 12 , but 1/10th the size of neurons) “support” cells …… will come back to later today
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The NEURON Components common to all cells of the body: cytoplasm , nucleus membrane H 2 0, 0 2 , C0 2 , urea pass freely across membrane Large or Electrically charged molecules do NOT -> Need ionic “channels” for: K + , Na + , Cl - mitochondria (energy from metabolism) ribosomes (synthesis of new proteins) lysosomes (break things down -> recycle) Golgi complex (secretion of waste)
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Components unique to NEURONS: soma (sometimes called “cell body”) dendrites (one or many): receive signals axon (one main): sends signals (starts at axon hillock) myelin sheath (glia): Not found in invertebrates nodes of Ranvier (will come back to later today) presynaptic (“before the synapse”) terminals synapse Node of Ranvier synapse
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Neuronal Communication Electrical signal sent from one neuron to the next (from the “presynaptic” -> “postsynaptic” neuron ) , or muscle PRESYNAPTIC POSTSYNAPTIC Neuromuscular Junction synapse Node of Ranvier
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Overview of Events: 1) Electrical signal starts in the presynaptic neuron and travels down the axon to the presynaptic terminals. PRESYNAPTIC POSTSYNAPTIC MORE LATER TODAY AND NEXT LECTURE 2) Causes release of neuotransmitter into the synapse 4) Triggers an electrical signal in postsynaptic neuron, and so on…..
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